An in vivo 31P NMR spectrum was obtained from each of four human breast tumours. The phosphomonoester and phosphodiester region of each spectrum consisted of a broad peak. Chemical extracts from samples of each of the tumours obtained at resection were examined on a high field strength NMR system. The phosphomonoester region in the spectrum from each extract resolved into three peaks consisting of phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine and a nucleoside monophosphate. The phosphodiester region resolved into two components, glycerophosphorylcholine and glycerophosphorylethanolamine. Comparing the in vivo and in vitro data from each tumour showed that the contribution of phosphodiester was much lower in the in vitro spectra. We believe this to be a consequence of phospholipid, which would not appear in the aqueous extract, contributing to the phosphodiester peak in vivo.