A convenient method of obtaining percentile norms and accompanying interval estimates for self-report mood scales (DASS, DASS-21, HADS, PANAS, and sAD)

John Robertson Crawford, Paul H. Garthwaite, Caroline Lawrie, Julie Diane Henry, Marie A. MacDonald, Frances J Sutherland, Priyanka Sinha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


Background. A series of recent papers have reported normative data from the general adult population for commonly used self-report mood scales.

Aims. To bring together and supplement these data in order to provide a convenient means of obtaining percentile norms for the mood scales.

Method. A computer program was developed that provides point and interval estimates of the percentile rank corresponding to raw scores on the various self-report scales.

Results. The program can be used to obtain point and interval estimates of the percentile rank of an individual's raw scores on the DASS, DASS-21, HADS, PANAS, and sAD mood scales, based on normative sample sizes ranging from 758 to 3822. The interval estimates can be obtained using either classical or Bayesian methods as preferred.

Conclusion. The computer program (which can be downloaded at www.abdn.ac.uk/, similar to psy086/dept/MoodScore.htm) provides a convenient and reliable means of supplementing existing cut-off scores for self-report mood scales.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-180
Number of pages18
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009


  • large nonclinical sample
  • personal disturbance scale
  • normative data
  • construct-validity
  • hospital anxiety
  • depression scale
  • latent structure
  • negative affect
  • test score
  • neuropsychology

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