Crack damage leading to failure in rocks can be accumulated through cyclic stressing in the crust. However, the vast majority of experimental studies to investigate cyclic stresses apply conventional triaxial stress states (σ1 > σ2 = σ3), while in nature the state-of-stress in the crust is generally truly triaxial (σ1 > σ2 > σ3). Furthermore, the magnitude of these crustal stresses can vary over time and their orientations can also rotate over time, generating multiple crack populations and bulk anisotropic crack damage. We investigate the evolution of crack damage under both conventional and true triaxial stress conditions by sequentially and cyclically varying stresses in all three principal directions on cubic samples of dry sandstone using independently controlled stress paths. We have measured, simultaneously with stress, the bulk acoustic emission (AE) output, as a proxy for crack damage. We report a directionally controlled crack damage memory effect which has implications for the approach to failure in complex tectonic stress environments.
- crack damage
- Kaiser effect
- stress rotation
- stress memory
Browning, J., Meredith, P. G., Stuart, C., Harland, S., Healy, D., & Mitchell, T. (2018). A Directional Crack Damage Memory Effect in Sandstone Under True Triaxial Loading. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(14), 6878-6886. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL078207