A new stylolite classification scheme to estimate compaction and local permeability variations

Daniel Koehn, Margaret P. Rood, Nicolas Beaudoin, Peter Chung, Paul D. Bons, Enrique Gomez Rivas

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Abstract

We modeled the geometrical roughening of bedding-parallel, mainly layer-dominated stylolites in order to understand their structural evolution, to present an advanced classification of stylolite shapes and to relate this classification to chemical compaction and permeability variations at stylolites. Stylolites are rough dissolution seams that develop in sedimentary basins during chemical compaction. In the Zechstein 2 carbonate units, an important lean gas reservoir in the southern Permian Zechstein basin in Germany, stylolites influence local fluid flow, mineral replacement reactions and hence the permeability of the reservoir. Our simulations demonstrate that layer- dominated stylolites can grow in three distinct stages: an initial slow nucleation phase, a fast layer-pinning phase and a final freezing phase if the layer is completely dissolved during growth. Dissolution of the pinning layer and thus destruction of the stylolite's compaction tracking capabilities is a function of the background noise in the rock and the dissolution rate of the layer itself. Low background noise needs a slower dissolving layer for pinning to be successful but produces flatter teeth than higher background noise. We present an advanced classification based on our simulations and separate stylolites into four classes: (1) rectangular layer type, (2) seismogram pinning type, (3) suture/sharp peak type and (4) simple wave-like type. Rectangular layer type stylolites are the most appropriate for chemical compaction estimates because they grow linearly and record most of the actual compaction (up to 40 mm in the Zechstein example). Seismogram pinning type stylolites also provide good tracking capabilities, with the largest teeth tracking most of the compaction. Suture/sharp peak type stylolites grow in a non-linear fashion and thus do not record most of the actual compaction. However, when a non-linear growth law is used, the compaction estimates are similar to those making use of the rectangular layer type stylolites. Simple wave-like stylolites are not useful for compaction estimates, since their growth is highly non- linear with a very low growth exponent. In the case where sealing material is collected at the tooth during dissolution, stylolites can act as barriers for local fluid flow as they intensify sealing capabilities of pinning layers. However, the development of teeth and spikes offsets and thus destroys continuous stylolite seams so that the permeability across the stylolite becomes very heterogeneous and they are no continuous barriers. This behavior is best shown in rectangular layer and seismogram pinning type stylolites that develop efficient fluid barriers at teeth tips but destroy sealing capabilities of layers by offsetting them at the flank, leading to a permeability anisotropy along 2-D stylolite planes. Suture/sharp peak stylolites can create fluid barriers if they collect enough sealing material. However, if the collecting material does not seal or if spikes offset the sealing material the stylolite leaks. We propose that our classification can be used to realistically estimate chemical compaction in reservoirs and gives an indication on how heterogeneous the permeability of stylolites can be.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-71
Number of pages12
JournalSedimentary Geology
Volume346
Early online date1 Nov 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016

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stylolite
compaction
permeability
sealing
tooth
Zechstein
seismogram
dissolution

Keywords

  • stylolite
  • permeability
  • compaction
  • classification
  • Zechstein
  • reservoir

Cite this

A new stylolite classification scheme to estimate compaction and local permeability variations. / Koehn, Daniel; Rood, Margaret P.; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Chung, Peter; Bons, Paul D.; Gomez Rivas, Enrique.

In: Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 346, 12.2016, p. 60-71.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Koehn, Daniel ; Rood, Margaret P. ; Beaudoin, Nicolas ; Chung, Peter ; Bons, Paul D. ; Gomez Rivas, Enrique. / A new stylolite classification scheme to estimate compaction and local permeability variations. In: Sedimentary Geology. 2016 ; Vol. 346. pp. 60-71.
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abstract = "We modeled the geometrical roughening of bedding-parallel, mainly layer-dominated stylolites in order to understand their structural evolution, to present an advanced classification of stylolite shapes and to relate this classification to chemical compaction and permeability variations at stylolites. Stylolites are rough dissolution seams that develop in sedimentary basins during chemical compaction. In the Zechstein 2 carbonate units, an important lean gas reservoir in the southern Permian Zechstein basin in Germany, stylolites influence local fluid flow, mineral replacement reactions and hence the permeability of the reservoir. Our simulations demonstrate that layer- dominated stylolites can grow in three distinct stages: an initial slow nucleation phase, a fast layer-pinning phase and a final freezing phase if the layer is completely dissolved during growth. Dissolution of the pinning layer and thus destruction of the stylolite's compaction tracking capabilities is a function of the background noise in the rock and the dissolution rate of the layer itself. Low background noise needs a slower dissolving layer for pinning to be successful but produces flatter teeth than higher background noise. We present an advanced classification based on our simulations and separate stylolites into four classes: (1) rectangular layer type, (2) seismogram pinning type, (3) suture/sharp peak type and (4) simple wave-like type. Rectangular layer type stylolites are the most appropriate for chemical compaction estimates because they grow linearly and record most of the actual compaction (up to 40 mm in the Zechstein example). Seismogram pinning type stylolites also provide good tracking capabilities, with the largest teeth tracking most of the compaction. Suture/sharp peak type stylolites grow in a non-linear fashion and thus do not record most of the actual compaction. However, when a non-linear growth law is used, the compaction estimates are similar to those making use of the rectangular layer type stylolites. Simple wave-like stylolites are not useful for compaction estimates, since their growth is highly non- linear with a very low growth exponent. In the case where sealing material is collected at the tooth during dissolution, stylolites can act as barriers for local fluid flow as they intensify sealing capabilities of pinning layers. However, the development of teeth and spikes offsets and thus destroys continuous stylolite seams so that the permeability across the stylolite becomes very heterogeneous and they are no continuous barriers. This behavior is best shown in rectangular layer and seismogram pinning type stylolites that develop efficient fluid barriers at teeth tips but destroy sealing capabilities of layers by offsetting them at the flank, leading to a permeability anisotropy along 2-D stylolite planes. Suture/sharp peak stylolites can create fluid barriers if they collect enough sealing material. However, if the collecting material does not seal or if spikes offset the sealing material the stylolite leaks. We propose that our classification can be used to realistically estimate chemical compaction in reservoirs and gives an indication on how heterogeneous the permeability of stylolites can be.",
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author = "Daniel Koehn and Rood, {Margaret P.} and Nicolas Beaudoin and Peter Chung and Bons, {Paul D.} and {Gomez Rivas}, Enrique",
note = "This study was carried out within the framework of DGMK (German Society for Petroleum and Coal Science and Technology) research project 718 “Mineral Vein Dynamics Modeling”, which is funded by the companies ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, GDF SUEZ E&P Deutschland GmbH, DEA Deutsche Erdoel AG and Wintershall Holding GmbH, within the basic research program of the WEG Wirtschaftsverband Erdoel- und Erdgasgewinnung e.V. We thank the companies for their financial support and their permission to publish these results. This work has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 31688. The Zechstein data were collected with the help of Simon Gast. We thank Jean-Pierre Gratier and an anonymous reviewer for their comments that improved an earlier version of the manuscript.",
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N1 - This study was carried out within the framework of DGMK (German Society for Petroleum and Coal Science and Technology) research project 718 “Mineral Vein Dynamics Modeling”, which is funded by the companies ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, GDF SUEZ E&P Deutschland GmbH, DEA Deutsche Erdoel AG and Wintershall Holding GmbH, within the basic research program of the WEG Wirtschaftsverband Erdoel- und Erdgasgewinnung e.V. We thank the companies for their financial support and their permission to publish these results. This work has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 31688. The Zechstein data were collected with the help of Simon Gast. We thank Jean-Pierre Gratier and an anonymous reviewer for their comments that improved an earlier version of the manuscript.

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N2 - We modeled the geometrical roughening of bedding-parallel, mainly layer-dominated stylolites in order to understand their structural evolution, to present an advanced classification of stylolite shapes and to relate this classification to chemical compaction and permeability variations at stylolites. Stylolites are rough dissolution seams that develop in sedimentary basins during chemical compaction. In the Zechstein 2 carbonate units, an important lean gas reservoir in the southern Permian Zechstein basin in Germany, stylolites influence local fluid flow, mineral replacement reactions and hence the permeability of the reservoir. Our simulations demonstrate that layer- dominated stylolites can grow in three distinct stages: an initial slow nucleation phase, a fast layer-pinning phase and a final freezing phase if the layer is completely dissolved during growth. Dissolution of the pinning layer and thus destruction of the stylolite's compaction tracking capabilities is a function of the background noise in the rock and the dissolution rate of the layer itself. Low background noise needs a slower dissolving layer for pinning to be successful but produces flatter teeth than higher background noise. We present an advanced classification based on our simulations and separate stylolites into four classes: (1) rectangular layer type, (2) seismogram pinning type, (3) suture/sharp peak type and (4) simple wave-like type. Rectangular layer type stylolites are the most appropriate for chemical compaction estimates because they grow linearly and record most of the actual compaction (up to 40 mm in the Zechstein example). Seismogram pinning type stylolites also provide good tracking capabilities, with the largest teeth tracking most of the compaction. Suture/sharp peak type stylolites grow in a non-linear fashion and thus do not record most of the actual compaction. However, when a non-linear growth law is used, the compaction estimates are similar to those making use of the rectangular layer type stylolites. Simple wave-like stylolites are not useful for compaction estimates, since their growth is highly non- linear with a very low growth exponent. In the case where sealing material is collected at the tooth during dissolution, stylolites can act as barriers for local fluid flow as they intensify sealing capabilities of pinning layers. However, the development of teeth and spikes offsets and thus destroys continuous stylolite seams so that the permeability across the stylolite becomes very heterogeneous and they are no continuous barriers. This behavior is best shown in rectangular layer and seismogram pinning type stylolites that develop efficient fluid barriers at teeth tips but destroy sealing capabilities of layers by offsetting them at the flank, leading to a permeability anisotropy along 2-D stylolite planes. Suture/sharp peak stylolites can create fluid barriers if they collect enough sealing material. However, if the collecting material does not seal or if spikes offset the sealing material the stylolite leaks. We propose that our classification can be used to realistically estimate chemical compaction in reservoirs and gives an indication on how heterogeneous the permeability of stylolites can be.

AB - We modeled the geometrical roughening of bedding-parallel, mainly layer-dominated stylolites in order to understand their structural evolution, to present an advanced classification of stylolite shapes and to relate this classification to chemical compaction and permeability variations at stylolites. Stylolites are rough dissolution seams that develop in sedimentary basins during chemical compaction. In the Zechstein 2 carbonate units, an important lean gas reservoir in the southern Permian Zechstein basin in Germany, stylolites influence local fluid flow, mineral replacement reactions and hence the permeability of the reservoir. Our simulations demonstrate that layer- dominated stylolites can grow in three distinct stages: an initial slow nucleation phase, a fast layer-pinning phase and a final freezing phase if the layer is completely dissolved during growth. Dissolution of the pinning layer and thus destruction of the stylolite's compaction tracking capabilities is a function of the background noise in the rock and the dissolution rate of the layer itself. Low background noise needs a slower dissolving layer for pinning to be successful but produces flatter teeth than higher background noise. We present an advanced classification based on our simulations and separate stylolites into four classes: (1) rectangular layer type, (2) seismogram pinning type, (3) suture/sharp peak type and (4) simple wave-like type. Rectangular layer type stylolites are the most appropriate for chemical compaction estimates because they grow linearly and record most of the actual compaction (up to 40 mm in the Zechstein example). Seismogram pinning type stylolites also provide good tracking capabilities, with the largest teeth tracking most of the compaction. Suture/sharp peak type stylolites grow in a non-linear fashion and thus do not record most of the actual compaction. However, when a non-linear growth law is used, the compaction estimates are similar to those making use of the rectangular layer type stylolites. Simple wave-like stylolites are not useful for compaction estimates, since their growth is highly non- linear with a very low growth exponent. In the case where sealing material is collected at the tooth during dissolution, stylolites can act as barriers for local fluid flow as they intensify sealing capabilities of pinning layers. However, the development of teeth and spikes offsets and thus destroys continuous stylolite seams so that the permeability across the stylolite becomes very heterogeneous and they are no continuous barriers. This behavior is best shown in rectangular layer and seismogram pinning type stylolites that develop efficient fluid barriers at teeth tips but destroy sealing capabilities of layers by offsetting them at the flank, leading to a permeability anisotropy along 2-D stylolite planes. Suture/sharp peak stylolites can create fluid barriers if they collect enough sealing material. However, if the collecting material does not seal or if spikes offset the sealing material the stylolite leaks. We propose that our classification can be used to realistically estimate chemical compaction in reservoirs and gives an indication on how heterogeneous the permeability of stylolites can be.

KW - stylolite

KW - permeability

KW - compaction

KW - classification

KW - Zechstein

KW - reservoir

U2 - 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2016.10.007

DO - 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2016.10.007

M3 - Article

VL - 346

SP - 60

EP - 71

JO - Sedimentary Geology

JF - Sedimentary Geology

SN - 0037-0738

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