A Prospective Surveillance Study of Candidaemia

Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Antifungal Treatment and Outcome in Hospitalized Patients

Ranjith Rajendran, Leighann Sherry, Ashutosh Deshpande, Elizabeth M. Johnson, Mary F. Hanson, Craig Williams, Carol A. Munro, Brian L. Jones, Gordon Ramage

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

This study provide an up-to-date overview of the epidemiology and risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection in Scotland in 2012/2013, and the antifungal susceptibility of isolates from blood cultures from 11 National Health Service boards within Scotland. Candida isolates were identified by chromogenic agar and confirmed by MALDI–TOF methods. Survival and associated risk factors for patients stratified as albicans and non-albicans cases were assessed. Information on the spectrum of antifungals used was collected and summarized. The isolates sensitivity to different antifungals was tested by broth microdilution method and interpreted according to CLSI/EUCAST guidelines. Forty one percent of candidaemia cases were associated with Candida albicans, followed by C. glabrata (35%), C. parapsilosis (11.5%), and remainder with other Candida spp. C. albicans and C. glabrata infections were associated with 20.9 and 16.3% mortality, respectively. Survival of patients with C. albicans was significantly lower compared to non-C. albicans and catheter line removal in C. albicans patients significantly increases the survival days. Predisposing factors such as total parenteral nutrition, and number of days on mechanical ventilation or in intensive care, were significantly associated with C. albicans infections. Fluconazole was used extensively (64.5%) for treating candidaemia cases followed by echinocandins (33.8%). Based on CLSI breakpoints, MIC test found no resistance to any antifungals tested except 5.26% fluconazole resistance among C. glabrata isolates. Moreover, by comparing to EUCAST breakpoints we found 3.95% of C. glabrata isolates were resistant to anidulafungin. We have observed a shift in Candida spp. with an increasing isolation of C. glabrata. Delay and choice of antifungal treatment are associated with poor clinical outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number915
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2016

Fingerprint

Candidemia
Candida albicans
Epidemiology
Candida
Prospective Studies
Fluconazole
Scotland
anidulafungin
Survival
Infection
Echinocandins
Total Parenteral Nutrition
National Health Programs
Critical Care
Artificial Respiration
Causality
Agar
Catheters
Guidelines
Mortality

Keywords

  • Candida albicans
  • Candida glabrata
  • candidaemia
  • antifungals
  • drug resistance

Cite this

A Prospective Surveillance Study of Candidaemia : Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Antifungal Treatment and Outcome in Hospitalized Patients. / Rajendran, Ranjith; Sherry, Leighann; Deshpande, Ashutosh ; Johnson, Elizabeth M.; Hanson, Mary F.; Williams, Craig; Munro, Carol A.; Jones, Brian L.; Ramage, Gordon.

In: Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 7, 915, 16.06.2016, p. 1-8.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rajendran, Ranjith ; Sherry, Leighann ; Deshpande, Ashutosh ; Johnson, Elizabeth M. ; Hanson, Mary F. ; Williams, Craig ; Munro, Carol A. ; Jones, Brian L. ; Ramage, Gordon. / A Prospective Surveillance Study of Candidaemia : Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Antifungal Treatment and Outcome in Hospitalized Patients. In: Frontiers in Microbiology. 2016 ; Vol. 7. pp. 1-8.
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abstract = "This study provide an up-to-date overview of the epidemiology and risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection in Scotland in 2012/2013, and the antifungal susceptibility of isolates from blood cultures from 11 National Health Service boards within Scotland. Candida isolates were identified by chromogenic agar and confirmed by MALDI–TOF methods. Survival and associated risk factors for patients stratified as albicans and non-albicans cases were assessed. Information on the spectrum of antifungals used was collected and summarized. The isolates sensitivity to different antifungals was tested by broth microdilution method and interpreted according to CLSI/EUCAST guidelines. Forty one percent of candidaemia cases were associated with Candida albicans, followed by C. glabrata (35{\%}), C. parapsilosis (11.5{\%}), and remainder with other Candida spp. C. albicans and C. glabrata infections were associated with 20.9 and 16.3{\%} mortality, respectively. Survival of patients with C. albicans was significantly lower compared to non-C. albicans and catheter line removal in C. albicans patients significantly increases the survival days. Predisposing factors such as total parenteral nutrition, and number of days on mechanical ventilation or in intensive care, were significantly associated with C. albicans infections. Fluconazole was used extensively (64.5{\%}) for treating candidaemia cases followed by echinocandins (33.8{\%}). Based on CLSI breakpoints, MIC test found no resistance to any antifungals tested except 5.26{\%} fluconazole resistance among C. glabrata isolates. Moreover, by comparing to EUCAST breakpoints we found 3.95{\%} of C. glabrata isolates were resistant to anidulafungin. We have observed a shift in Candida spp. with an increasing isolation of C. glabrata. Delay and choice of antifungal treatment are associated with poor clinical outcomes.",
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N1 - Funding This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust Strategic Award for Medical Mycology and Fungal Immunology 097377/Z/11/Z. Data collection was supported by a grant from Pfizer. GR was also supported by a research fellowship grant from Gilead Sciences. The collection of the isolates was funded by a Gilead Fellowship to GR. Acknowledgments We are grateful to microbiology colleagues throughout Scotland for submitting isolates. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed by the Mycology Reference Laboratory, Public Health England, Bristol.

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N2 - This study provide an up-to-date overview of the epidemiology and risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection in Scotland in 2012/2013, and the antifungal susceptibility of isolates from blood cultures from 11 National Health Service boards within Scotland. Candida isolates were identified by chromogenic agar and confirmed by MALDI–TOF methods. Survival and associated risk factors for patients stratified as albicans and non-albicans cases were assessed. Information on the spectrum of antifungals used was collected and summarized. The isolates sensitivity to different antifungals was tested by broth microdilution method and interpreted according to CLSI/EUCAST guidelines. Forty one percent of candidaemia cases were associated with Candida albicans, followed by C. glabrata (35%), C. parapsilosis (11.5%), and remainder with other Candida spp. C. albicans and C. glabrata infections were associated with 20.9 and 16.3% mortality, respectively. Survival of patients with C. albicans was significantly lower compared to non-C. albicans and catheter line removal in C. albicans patients significantly increases the survival days. Predisposing factors such as total parenteral nutrition, and number of days on mechanical ventilation or in intensive care, were significantly associated with C. albicans infections. Fluconazole was used extensively (64.5%) for treating candidaemia cases followed by echinocandins (33.8%). Based on CLSI breakpoints, MIC test found no resistance to any antifungals tested except 5.26% fluconazole resistance among C. glabrata isolates. Moreover, by comparing to EUCAST breakpoints we found 3.95% of C. glabrata isolates were resistant to anidulafungin. We have observed a shift in Candida spp. with an increasing isolation of C. glabrata. Delay and choice of antifungal treatment are associated with poor clinical outcomes.

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KW - Candida glabrata

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