Three periods can be distinguished in university patenting at the U.S. Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) since the Bayh–Dole Act of 1980: (1) a first period of exponential increase in university patenting till 1995 (filing date) or 1999 (issuing date); (2) a period of relative decline since 1999; and (3) in most recent years—since 2008—a linear increase in university patenting. We argue that this last period is driven by specific non-US universities (e.g., Tokyo University and Chinese University) patenting increasingly in the USA as the most competitive market for high-tech patents.
Leydesdorff, L., & Meyer, M. (2013). A reply to Etzkowitz' comments to Leydesdorff and Martin (2010): Technology transfer and the end of the Bayh-Dole effect. Scientometrics, 97(3), 927–934. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-013-0997-5