A survey of the trichostrongylid nematode species present on UK sheep farms and associated anthelmintic control practices

Charlotte G S Burgess, Yvonne Bartley, Elizabeth Redman, Philip J Skuce, Mintu Nath, Fiona Whitelaw, Andrew Tait, John S Gilleard, Frank Jackson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

A survey of sheep farms from across the UK was conducted to establish information on farming practices, the trichostrongylid nematode species present and anthelmintic usage. Questionnaires and faecal samples were returned from 118 farms. First stage larvae (L(1)) were cultured from faecal samples and used for PCR analysis to determine the presence/absence of selected trichostrongylid species. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the only species present on 100% of farms. Haemonchus contortus was found on ∼50% of farms and was widespread throughout the UK. The most common Trichostrongylus spp. was T. vitrinus, found on 95% of farms. Determining the anthelmintic dose rate based on the weight of the heaviest animal in the flock to avoid under dosing was carried out on 58% of farms and was associated with a significantly lower mean epg (p<0.001) in lambs. However, the weight of animals was only estimated (as opposed to animals weighed) on 32% of farms. Macrocyclic lactones (ML) were the most commonly used anthelmintic class for ewes, whilst benzimidazoles (BZ) were the most widely used in lambs. Twenty-two of the surveyed farms had confirmed anthelmintic resistance, of these, 18 had BZ resistance, one had levamisole (LEV) resistance and 3 had resistance to both BZ and LEV. No farms in this survey reported resistance to ML. Location had a significant effect on the incidence of anthelmintic resistance on the farms in this survey (p=0.002). There was evidence of a lower risk of anthelmintic resistance occurring on farms from Scotland compared to those in England (p(f)=0.047) and Wales (p(f)=0.012). Farm type, flock type and open or closed status did not have any significant effect on the incidence of anthelmintic resistance when all other factors were taken into consideration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)299-307
Number of pages9
JournalVeterinary Parasitology
Volume189
Issue number2-4
Early online date18 Apr 2012
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Oct 2012

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Trichostrongylidae
Anthelmintics
anthelmintics
control methods
Sheep
Nematoda
sheep
farms
benzimidazoles
Benzimidazoles
farm surveys
levamisole
Levamisole
lactones
Lactones
flocks
lambs
Trichostrongylus vitrinus
Farms
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
  • Data Collection
  • Feces/parasitology
  • Nematoda/classification
  • Sheep
  • Sheep Diseases/drug therapy
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United Kingdom/epidemiology

Cite this

A survey of the trichostrongylid nematode species present on UK sheep farms and associated anthelmintic control practices. / Burgess, Charlotte G S; Bartley, Yvonne; Redman, Elizabeth; Skuce, Philip J; Nath, Mintu; Whitelaw, Fiona; Tait, Andrew; Gilleard, John S; Jackson, Frank.

In: Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 189, No. 2-4, 26.10.2012, p. 299-307.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Burgess, CGS, Bartley, Y, Redman, E, Skuce, PJ, Nath, M, Whitelaw, F, Tait, A, Gilleard, JS & Jackson, F 2012, 'A survey of the trichostrongylid nematode species present on UK sheep farms and associated anthelmintic control practices', Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 189, no. 2-4, pp. 299-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.04.009
Burgess, Charlotte G S ; Bartley, Yvonne ; Redman, Elizabeth ; Skuce, Philip J ; Nath, Mintu ; Whitelaw, Fiona ; Tait, Andrew ; Gilleard, John S ; Jackson, Frank. / A survey of the trichostrongylid nematode species present on UK sheep farms and associated anthelmintic control practices. In: Veterinary Parasitology. 2012 ; Vol. 189, No. 2-4. pp. 299-307.
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abstract = "A survey of sheep farms from across the UK was conducted to establish information on farming practices, the trichostrongylid nematode species present and anthelmintic usage. Questionnaires and faecal samples were returned from 118 farms. First stage larvae (L(1)) were cultured from faecal samples and used for PCR analysis to determine the presence/absence of selected trichostrongylid species. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the only species present on 100{\%} of farms. Haemonchus contortus was found on ∼50{\%} of farms and was widespread throughout the UK. The most common Trichostrongylus spp. was T. vitrinus, found on 95{\%} of farms. Determining the anthelmintic dose rate based on the weight of the heaviest animal in the flock to avoid under dosing was carried out on 58{\%} of farms and was associated with a significantly lower mean epg (p<0.001) in lambs. However, the weight of animals was only estimated (as opposed to animals weighed) on 32{\%} of farms. Macrocyclic lactones (ML) were the most commonly used anthelmintic class for ewes, whilst benzimidazoles (BZ) were the most widely used in lambs. Twenty-two of the surveyed farms had confirmed anthelmintic resistance, of these, 18 had BZ resistance, one had levamisole (LEV) resistance and 3 had resistance to both BZ and LEV. No farms in this survey reported resistance to ML. Location had a significant effect on the incidence of anthelmintic resistance on the farms in this survey (p=0.002). There was evidence of a lower risk of anthelmintic resistance occurring on farms from Scotland compared to those in England (p(f)=0.047) and Wales (p(f)=0.012). Farm type, flock type and open or closed status did not have any significant effect on the incidence of anthelmintic resistance when all other factors were taken into consideration.",
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AU - Nath, Mintu

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N1 - Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Biotechnology and Biological Research Sciences Council Combating Endemic Diseases of Farmed Animals for Sustainability Initiative (BBSRC-CEDFAS–GrantBB/EO18505/1) for funding this study and the Moredun Foundation farmers who took part in the survey. Philip Skuce, Mintu Nath and Frank Jackson were supported by funding from the Scottish Government Rural and Environment Research and Analysis Directorate. We would also like to thank Alison Morrison, David Bartley, Rachael Baker and Heather McDougall for their assistance in extracting eggs from faecal samples and Iain McKendrick for assistance with the manuscript.

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KW - Animals

KW - Anthelmintics/therapeutic use

KW - Data Collection

KW - Feces/parasitology

KW - Nematoda/classification

KW - Sheep

KW - Sheep Diseases/drug therapy

KW - Surveys and Questionnaires

KW - United Kingdom/epidemiology

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VL - 189

SP - 299

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JO - Veterinary Parasitology

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