A theoretically informed survey of the views and experiences of practising pharmacists on research conduct, dissemination and translation

Derek Stewart (Corresponding Author), Scott Cunningham, Alison Strath, Andrew MacLure, Kathrine Gibson Smith, Gordon F. Rushworth, Tobias Dreischulte, Christopher Nicolson, David Pfleger, Dawn Tiernan, Katie MacLure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background While studies have reported pharmacists’ perspectives of research involvement, almost all are limited by sector, have little focus on research translation and have not incorporated behavior change theory. Objective To determine pharmacists’ views and experiences of research conduct, dissemination and translation. Methods This was an electronic cross-sectional survey of pharmacists across six Scottish health board areas. Survey items were: demographics; research activities (e.g. conduct, dissemination) in the last two years; research interests, experience and confidence in research tasks (e.g. proposal writing, data collection); and Likert statements on research conduct and dissemination, and translating research findings to practice. Conduct/dissemination and translation items were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and principal component analysis (PCA) of TDF items. Following determination of internal consistency, scores for each component were calculated. Results The response rate was 19.4% (136/701), with 17 (12.5%) currently involved in research. Responses were more positive for interest in research than experience or confidence. PCA of research conduct/dissemination items identified three internally reliable components of support/opportunities, motivation/outcomes, and roles/characteristics. Component scores for support/opportunities to participate in research were most negative. PCA of translation items identified three internally reliable components of current practices/abilities, consequences and support. Scores for all three components were positive, being most positive for consequences of research translation. Those in secondary care, with a postgraduate qualification and prescribers scored higher for interest, experience, confidence, and for most components (p < 0.05). Conclusion A minority of pharmacists are involved in the research conduct/dissemination and these are more likely to be highly qualified individuals based in secondary care. Given the need to develop and evaluate new models of pharmaceutical care, involvement should be extended to all practice settings. Study findings could be used to develop behavior change interventions targeting individuals and organizations.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalResearch in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
Early online date13 Dec 2018
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Dec 2018

Fingerprint

Pharmacists
Research
Principal Component Analysis
Principal component analysis
Secondary Care
Surveys and Questionnaires
Pharmaceutical Services
Translating
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography
Health
Statistics

Keywords

  • Pharmacists
  • Questionnaire
  • Research capacity
  • Research translation
  • Scotland

Cite this

A theoretically informed survey of the views and experiences of practising pharmacists on research conduct, dissemination and translation. / Stewart, Derek (Corresponding Author); Cunningham, Scott; Strath, Alison; MacLure, Andrew ; Gibson Smith, Kathrine; Rushworth, Gordon F.; Dreischulte, Tobias; Nicolson, Christopher; Pfleger, David; Tiernan, Dawn; MacLure, Katie .

In: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy , 13.12.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stewart, Derek ; Cunningham, Scott ; Strath, Alison ; MacLure, Andrew ; Gibson Smith, Kathrine ; Rushworth, Gordon F. ; Dreischulte, Tobias ; Nicolson, Christopher ; Pfleger, David ; Tiernan, Dawn ; MacLure, Katie . / A theoretically informed survey of the views and experiences of practising pharmacists on research conduct, dissemination and translation. In: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy . 2018.
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note = "Funding sources This research was funded by Robert Gordon University, UK. Acknowledgements The authors wish to acknowledge all pharmacists who completed the questionnaire.",
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T1 - A theoretically informed survey of the views and experiences of practising pharmacists on research conduct, dissemination and translation

AU - Stewart, Derek

AU - Cunningham, Scott

AU - Strath, Alison

AU - MacLure, Andrew

AU - Gibson Smith, Kathrine

AU - Rushworth, Gordon F.

AU - Dreischulte, Tobias

AU - Nicolson, Christopher

AU - Pfleger, David

AU - Tiernan, Dawn

AU - MacLure, Katie

N1 - Funding sources This research was funded by Robert Gordon University, UK. Acknowledgements The authors wish to acknowledge all pharmacists who completed the questionnaire.

PY - 2018/12/13

Y1 - 2018/12/13

N2 - Background While studies have reported pharmacists’ perspectives of research involvement, almost all are limited by sector, have little focus on research translation and have not incorporated behavior change theory. Objective To determine pharmacists’ views and experiences of research conduct, dissemination and translation. Methods This was an electronic cross-sectional survey of pharmacists across six Scottish health board areas. Survey items were: demographics; research activities (e.g. conduct, dissemination) in the last two years; research interests, experience and confidence in research tasks (e.g. proposal writing, data collection); and Likert statements on research conduct and dissemination, and translating research findings to practice. Conduct/dissemination and translation items were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and principal component analysis (PCA) of TDF items. Following determination of internal consistency, scores for each component were calculated. Results The response rate was 19.4% (136/701), with 17 (12.5%) currently involved in research. Responses were more positive for interest in research than experience or confidence. PCA of research conduct/dissemination items identified three internally reliable components of support/opportunities, motivation/outcomes, and roles/characteristics. Component scores for support/opportunities to participate in research were most negative. PCA of translation items identified three internally reliable components of current practices/abilities, consequences and support. Scores for all three components were positive, being most positive for consequences of research translation. Those in secondary care, with a postgraduate qualification and prescribers scored higher for interest, experience, confidence, and for most components (p < 0.05). Conclusion A minority of pharmacists are involved in the research conduct/dissemination and these are more likely to be highly qualified individuals based in secondary care. Given the need to develop and evaluate new models of pharmaceutical care, involvement should be extended to all practice settings. Study findings could be used to develop behavior change interventions targeting individuals and organizations.

AB - Background While studies have reported pharmacists’ perspectives of research involvement, almost all are limited by sector, have little focus on research translation and have not incorporated behavior change theory. Objective To determine pharmacists’ views and experiences of research conduct, dissemination and translation. Methods This was an electronic cross-sectional survey of pharmacists across six Scottish health board areas. Survey items were: demographics; research activities (e.g. conduct, dissemination) in the last two years; research interests, experience and confidence in research tasks (e.g. proposal writing, data collection); and Likert statements on research conduct and dissemination, and translating research findings to practice. Conduct/dissemination and translation items were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and principal component analysis (PCA) of TDF items. Following determination of internal consistency, scores for each component were calculated. Results The response rate was 19.4% (136/701), with 17 (12.5%) currently involved in research. Responses were more positive for interest in research than experience or confidence. PCA of research conduct/dissemination items identified three internally reliable components of support/opportunities, motivation/outcomes, and roles/characteristics. Component scores for support/opportunities to participate in research were most negative. PCA of translation items identified three internally reliable components of current practices/abilities, consequences and support. Scores for all three components were positive, being most positive for consequences of research translation. Those in secondary care, with a postgraduate qualification and prescribers scored higher for interest, experience, confidence, and for most components (p < 0.05). Conclusion A minority of pharmacists are involved in the research conduct/dissemination and these are more likely to be highly qualified individuals based in secondary care. Given the need to develop and evaluate new models of pharmaceutical care, involvement should be extended to all practice settings. Study findings could be used to develop behavior change interventions targeting individuals and organizations.

KW - Pharmacists

KW - Questionnaire

KW - Research capacity

KW - Research translation

KW - Scotland

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JO - Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy

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