Altered root traits due to elevated CO2

a meta-analysis

Ming Nie*, Meng Lu, Jennifer Bell, Swastika Raut, Elise Pendall

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim Plant root traits regulate belowground C inputs, soil nutrient and water uptake, and play critical roles in determining sustainable plant production and consequences for ecosystem C storage. However, the effects of elevated CO2 on root morphology and function have not been well quantified. We reveal general patterns of root trait responses to elevated CO2 from field manipulative experiments.

Location North America, Europe, Oceania, Asia.

Methods The meta-analysis approach was used to examine the effects of CO2 elevation on 17 variables associated with root morphology, biomass size and distribution, C and N concentrations and pools, turnover and fungal colonization from 110 published studies.

Results Elevated CO2 increased root length (+26.0%) and diameter (+8.4%). Elevated CO2 also stimulated total root (+28.8%), fine root (+27.7%) and coarse root biomass (+25.3%), demonstrating strong responses of root morphology and biomass. Elevated CO2 increased the root:shoot ratio (+8.5%) and decreased the proportion of roots in the topsoil (-8.4%), suggesting that plants expand rooting systems. In addition, elevated CO2 decreased N concentration (-7.1%), but did not affect C concentration, and thus increased the C:N ratio (+7.8%). Root C (+29.3%) increased disproportionately relative to root N pools (+9.4%) under elevated CO2. Functional traits were also strongly affected by elevated CO2, which increased respiration (+58.9%), rhizodeposition (+37.9%) and fungal colonization (+3.3%).

Main conclusions These results suggest that elevated CO2 promoted root morphological development, root system expansion and C input to soils, implying that the sensitive responses of root morphology and function to elevated CO2 would increase long-term belowground C sequestration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1095-1105
Number of pages11
JournalGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
Volume22
Issue number10
Early online date17 Apr 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013

Keywords

  • C sequestration
  • CO2
  • free-air CO2 enrichment
  • meta-analysis
  • open top chamber
  • plant root
  • atmospheric carbon-dioxide
  • fine roots
  • deciduous forest
  • enrichment face
  • loblolly-pine
  • soil-microorganisms
  • N availability
  • responses
  • nitrogen
  • dynamics

Cite this

Nie, M., Lu, M., Bell, J., Raut, S., & Pendall, E. (2013). Altered root traits due to elevated CO2: a meta-analysis. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22(10), 1095-1105. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12062

Altered root traits due to elevated CO2 : a meta-analysis. / Nie, Ming; Lu, Meng; Bell, Jennifer; Raut, Swastika; Pendall, Elise.

In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 22, No. 10, 10.2013, p. 1095-1105.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nie, M, Lu, M, Bell, J, Raut, S & Pendall, E 2013, 'Altered root traits due to elevated CO2: a meta-analysis', Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1095-1105. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12062
Nie, Ming ; Lu, Meng ; Bell, Jennifer ; Raut, Swastika ; Pendall, Elise. / Altered root traits due to elevated CO2 : a meta-analysis. In: Global Ecology and Biogeography. 2013 ; Vol. 22, No. 10. pp. 1095-1105.
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abstract = "Aim Plant root traits regulate belowground C inputs, soil nutrient and water uptake, and play critical roles in determining sustainable plant production and consequences for ecosystem C storage. However, the effects of elevated CO2 on root morphology and function have not been well quantified. We reveal general patterns of root trait responses to elevated CO2 from field manipulative experiments.Location North America, Europe, Oceania, Asia.Methods The meta-analysis approach was used to examine the effects of CO2 elevation on 17 variables associated with root morphology, biomass size and distribution, C and N concentrations and pools, turnover and fungal colonization from 110 published studies.Results Elevated CO2 increased root length (+26.0{\%}) and diameter (+8.4{\%}). Elevated CO2 also stimulated total root (+28.8{\%}), fine root (+27.7{\%}) and coarse root biomass (+25.3{\%}), demonstrating strong responses of root morphology and biomass. Elevated CO2 increased the root:shoot ratio (+8.5{\%}) and decreased the proportion of roots in the topsoil (-8.4{\%}), suggesting that plants expand rooting systems. In addition, elevated CO2 decreased N concentration (-7.1{\%}), but did not affect C concentration, and thus increased the C:N ratio (+7.8{\%}). Root C (+29.3{\%}) increased disproportionately relative to root N pools (+9.4{\%}) under elevated CO2. Functional traits were also strongly affected by elevated CO2, which increased respiration (+58.9{\%}), rhizodeposition (+37.9{\%}) and fungal colonization (+3.3{\%}).Main conclusions These results suggest that elevated CO2 promoted root morphological development, root system expansion and C input to soils, implying that the sensitive responses of root morphology and function to elevated CO2 would increase long-term belowground C sequestration.",
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T1 - Altered root traits due to elevated CO2

T2 - a meta-analysis

AU - Nie, Ming

AU - Lu, Meng

AU - Bell, Jennifer

AU - Raut, Swastika

AU - Pendall, Elise

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N2 - Aim Plant root traits regulate belowground C inputs, soil nutrient and water uptake, and play critical roles in determining sustainable plant production and consequences for ecosystem C storage. However, the effects of elevated CO2 on root morphology and function have not been well quantified. We reveal general patterns of root trait responses to elevated CO2 from field manipulative experiments.Location North America, Europe, Oceania, Asia.Methods The meta-analysis approach was used to examine the effects of CO2 elevation on 17 variables associated with root morphology, biomass size and distribution, C and N concentrations and pools, turnover and fungal colonization from 110 published studies.Results Elevated CO2 increased root length (+26.0%) and diameter (+8.4%). Elevated CO2 also stimulated total root (+28.8%), fine root (+27.7%) and coarse root biomass (+25.3%), demonstrating strong responses of root morphology and biomass. Elevated CO2 increased the root:shoot ratio (+8.5%) and decreased the proportion of roots in the topsoil (-8.4%), suggesting that plants expand rooting systems. In addition, elevated CO2 decreased N concentration (-7.1%), but did not affect C concentration, and thus increased the C:N ratio (+7.8%). Root C (+29.3%) increased disproportionately relative to root N pools (+9.4%) under elevated CO2. Functional traits were also strongly affected by elevated CO2, which increased respiration (+58.9%), rhizodeposition (+37.9%) and fungal colonization (+3.3%).Main conclusions These results suggest that elevated CO2 promoted root morphological development, root system expansion and C input to soils, implying that the sensitive responses of root morphology and function to elevated CO2 would increase long-term belowground C sequestration.

AB - Aim Plant root traits regulate belowground C inputs, soil nutrient and water uptake, and play critical roles in determining sustainable plant production and consequences for ecosystem C storage. However, the effects of elevated CO2 on root morphology and function have not been well quantified. We reveal general patterns of root trait responses to elevated CO2 from field manipulative experiments.Location North America, Europe, Oceania, Asia.Methods The meta-analysis approach was used to examine the effects of CO2 elevation on 17 variables associated with root morphology, biomass size and distribution, C and N concentrations and pools, turnover and fungal colonization from 110 published studies.Results Elevated CO2 increased root length (+26.0%) and diameter (+8.4%). Elevated CO2 also stimulated total root (+28.8%), fine root (+27.7%) and coarse root biomass (+25.3%), demonstrating strong responses of root morphology and biomass. Elevated CO2 increased the root:shoot ratio (+8.5%) and decreased the proportion of roots in the topsoil (-8.4%), suggesting that plants expand rooting systems. In addition, elevated CO2 decreased N concentration (-7.1%), but did not affect C concentration, and thus increased the C:N ratio (+7.8%). Root C (+29.3%) increased disproportionately relative to root N pools (+9.4%) under elevated CO2. Functional traits were also strongly affected by elevated CO2, which increased respiration (+58.9%), rhizodeposition (+37.9%) and fungal colonization (+3.3%).Main conclusions These results suggest that elevated CO2 promoted root morphological development, root system expansion and C input to soils, implying that the sensitive responses of root morphology and function to elevated CO2 would increase long-term belowground C sequestration.

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KW - CO2

KW - free-air CO2 enrichment

KW - meta-analysis

KW - open top chamber

KW - plant root

KW - atmospheric carbon-dioxide

KW - fine roots

KW - deciduous forest

KW - enrichment face

KW - loblolly-pine

KW - soil-microorganisms

KW - N availability

KW - responses

KW - nitrogen

KW - dynamics

U2 - 10.1111/geb.12062

DO - 10.1111/geb.12062

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 1095

EP - 1105

JO - Global Ecology and Biogeography

JF - Global Ecology and Biogeography

SN - 1466-822X

IS - 10

ER -