Interdependence between El-Niño/Southern Oscillation and Indian monsoon is analyzed with the use of Granger causality estimation from data for the period 1871–2006. Four different versions of the Niño-3 and Niño-3.4 index are used to check robustness of the results. We reveal a non-symmetric bidirectional and even alternating character of coupling that extends previous knowledge about the presence of negative correlation and intervals of phase synchrony between the processes.
Mokhov, I. I., Smirnov, D. A., Nakonechny, P. I., Kozlenko, S. S., Seleznev, E. P., & Kurths, J. (2011). Alternating mutual influence of El Nino/southern oscillation and Indian monsoon. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(8), [L00F04]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL045932