SCOPE: We evaluated the protective effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in high-fat diets (HFDs) on the inflammatory response and liver damage in a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse model.
METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice fed a standard diet or a lard-based HFD (HFD-L) for 12 weeks to develop NAFLD. HFD fed mice were then divided into four groups and fed for 24 weeks with: HFD-L; HFD-EVOO; HFD-OL (phenolics-rich EVOO) and R (reversion; standard diet). HFD-L-induced metabolic disorders were alleviated by replacement of lard with EVOO. EVOO diets improved plasma lipid profile and reduced body weight (BW), plasma and epididymal fat INF-γ, IL-6 and leptin levels and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, NAFLD Activity (NAS) scores were reduced. The liver lipid composition showed an increase in MUFAs, especially oleic acid, and a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). Hepatic adiponutrin and Cd36 gene expression was up-regulated in the EVOO groups. Liver Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) revealed in EVOO groups regulation of proteins involved in lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, gastrointestinal disease and liver regeneration.
CONCLUSION: Dietary EVOO could repair HFD-induced hepatic damage, possibly via an anti-inflammatory effect in adipose tissue and modifications in the liver lipid composition and signaling pathways.
- Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO)
- high-fat diet
- nonoalcholic fatty liver disease