An inquiry into born-global firms in Europe and the USA

Gary Knight, Tage Koed Madsen, Per Servais

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

264 Citations (Scopus)


Companies that internationalise at or near their founding, "born globals," are emerging in great numbers world-wide. Characterised by a specific Gestalt of marketing-related competencies, they are playing an increasing role in international trade. Born globals are investigated using data from case and survey-based studies in Denmark and the USA. First introduces and describes the born-global phenomenon. Then, hypotheses are developed and tested via a structural model that represents key factors in the international success of this important breed of firm. Results suggest that born-global international performance is enhanced in the wake of managerial emphasis on foreign customer focus and marketing competence. Product quality and differentiation strategy also play important roles, particularly in the US firms. These and additional findings are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)645-665
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Marketing Review
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2004


  • Denmark
  • Globalization
  • International marketing
  • Marketing strategy
  • United States of America


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