Hydroxyapatite has been shown to be biocompatible and bioactive. Incorporation of porosity has been shown to enhance osteointegration; however, difficulty in controlling the extent and type of porosity has limited investigation into determining the role of both macro- and microporosity. The current investigation reports on the synthesis of four types of phase-pure hydroxyapatite with varying levels of porosity (HA1-HA4), and with defined levels of macro- and microporosities. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate qualitatively the effect of these two parameters on cell-material interactions following a 30-day incubation period. Biological mineralization was observed within vesicles and the needle-like minerals were confirmed as hydroxyapatite using X-ray microanalysis. This demonstrated the suitability of primary human osteoblast-like cells as a tool to assess the extent of mineralization. Furthermore, internalization of hydroxyapatite particles was observed. Our findings show that the variation in macro- and microporosity does not affect the extent of cell-material interaction, with collagen synthesis evident in all samples.
- transmission electron microscopy
- POROUS HYDROXYAPATITE
- OSTEOBLAST PHENOTYPE
- BONE INGROWTH