Objectives: Our earlier work had established that moderate depression significantly decreased over the first 6 months after stroke, whereas anxiety levels remained moderate but stable. This study examines the factors predictive of anxiety and depression to 3 years.
Methods: Patients were assessed on six occasions: on hospital admission, 10-20 days following admission, I and 6 months following discharge, and I and 3 years poststroke, with 38 of the original sample of 10 1 taking part at Year 3. Demographic and clinical variables, disability, handicap, and psychological measures were used to predict 3-year anxiety and depression, controlling for earlier levels of anxiety or depression.
Results: Multiple regression analyses of anxiety at 3 years, controlling for gender and previous anxiety, demonstrated that neither of the significant partial correlates of 6-month depression or satisfaction with treatment persisted. Gender effects persisted when controlling for previous anxiety. Multiple regression analyses of depression at 3 years, controlling for early depression, found that exercise, treatment satisfaction, anxiety, and handicap added significantly to the prediction of lower depression.
Conclusions: Anxiety remains stable over 3 years poststroke and is best explained by prior, early, anxiety, and female gender. Depression reduces over time and was explained by modifiable cognitions and behaviours, which replicates previous findings. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- satisfaction with care
- poststroke depression
- hospital anxiety
- lesion location
- perceived control