Appetite control and biomarkers of satiety with vegetarian (soy) and meat-based high-protein diets for weight loss in obese men

a randomized crossover trial

Madalina Neacsu, Claire Louise Fyfe, Graham Horgan, Alexandra Johnstone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: There is limited evidence with regard to the effect of different sources of protein on appetite during weight loss. Vegetarian and meat-based high-protein diets may have contrasting effects on appetite and biomarkers of protein-induced satiety.

Objective: The aim was to assess appetite response to meat or vegetarian high-protein weight-loss (HPWL) diets in obese men to monitor plasma amino acid profile and gut peptide response as potential satiety biomarkers.

Design: Twenty obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 34.8] men participated in a dietary intervention study. After 3 d of a maintenance diet, they were provided in a crossover design with either a vegetarian HPWL (Soy-HPWL) or a meat-based HPWL (Meat-HPWL) diet for 2 wk. Both diets comprised 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate, provided to measured resting metabolic rate. Body weight and the motivation to eat were measured daily. Plasma satiety biomarkers were collected during a test-meal challenge (5 h) at the end of each diet period.

Results: Over the 2 wk, subjects lost, on average, 2.41 and 2.27 kg with consumption of the Soy- and Meat-HPWL diets, respectively [P = 0.352; SE of the difference (SED): 0.1]. ANOVA confirmed that subjectively rated hunger (P = 0.569; SED: 3.8); fullness (P = 0.404; SED: 4.1), desire to eat (P = 0.356; SED: 3.7), preservation of lean body mass (P = 0.334; SED: 0.2), and loss of percentage fat mass (P = 0.179; SED: 0.2) did not differ between the 2 HPWL diets. There were differences in absolute concentrations of ghrelin and peptide YY between the 2 HPWL diets, although the response as net area under the curve was not different.

Conclusions: Appetite control and weight loss were similar for both HPWL diets. Gut hormone profile was similar between the diets, which suggests that vegetarian diets can be as effective as meat-based diets for appetite control during weight loss.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)548-558
Number of pages11
JournalThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume100
Issue number2
Early online date18 Jun 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2014

Cite this

@article{534a94fb318342f59008ec96302afe9d,
title = "Appetite control and biomarkers of satiety with vegetarian (soy) and meat-based high-protein diets for weight loss in obese men: a randomized crossover trial",
abstract = "Background: There is limited evidence with regard to the effect of different sources of protein on appetite during weight loss. Vegetarian and meat-based high-protein diets may have contrasting effects on appetite and biomarkers of protein-induced satiety.Objective: The aim was to assess appetite response to meat or vegetarian high-protein weight-loss (HPWL) diets in obese men to monitor plasma amino acid profile and gut peptide response as potential satiety biomarkers.Design: Twenty obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 34.8] men participated in a dietary intervention study. After 3 d of a maintenance diet, they were provided in a crossover design with either a vegetarian HPWL (Soy-HPWL) or a meat-based HPWL (Meat-HPWL) diet for 2 wk. Both diets comprised 30{\%} protein, 30{\%} fat, and 40{\%} carbohydrate, provided to measured resting metabolic rate. Body weight and the motivation to eat were measured daily. Plasma satiety biomarkers were collected during a test-meal challenge (5 h) at the end of each diet period.Results: Over the 2 wk, subjects lost, on average, 2.41 and 2.27 kg with consumption of the Soy- and Meat-HPWL diets, respectively [P = 0.352; SE of the difference (SED): 0.1]. ANOVA confirmed that subjectively rated hunger (P = 0.569; SED: 3.8); fullness (P = 0.404; SED: 4.1), desire to eat (P = 0.356; SED: 3.7), preservation of lean body mass (P = 0.334; SED: 0.2), and loss of percentage fat mass (P = 0.179; SED: 0.2) did not differ between the 2 HPWL diets. There were differences in absolute concentrations of ghrelin and peptide YY between the 2 HPWL diets, although the response as net area under the curve was not different.Conclusions: Appetite control and weight loss were similar for both HPWL diets. Gut hormone profile was similar between the diets, which suggests that vegetarian diets can be as effective as meat-based diets for appetite control during weight loss.",
author = "Madalina Neacsu and Fyfe, {Claire Louise} and Graham Horgan and Alexandra Johnstone",
note = "We are grateful for the assistance from Karen Taylor, Jean Bryce, and Nina Lamza for the preparation of the study diets and Sylvia Stephen and Lorna Hermitage for their support in the Human Nutrition Unit. The authors’ responsibilities were as follows—AMJ, CF, and GH: were responsible for the study concept and design; AMJ, MN, and CF: were responsible for data collection and collation; and AMJ, MN, CF, and GH: were responsible for data analysis and for the first draft and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. None of the authors had a personal or financial conflict of interest.",
year = "2014",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3945/ajcn.113.077503",
language = "English",
volume = "100",
pages = "548--558",
journal = "The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Appetite control and biomarkers of satiety with vegetarian (soy) and meat-based high-protein diets for weight loss in obese men

T2 - a randomized crossover trial

AU - Neacsu, Madalina

AU - Fyfe, Claire Louise

AU - Horgan, Graham

AU - Johnstone, Alexandra

N1 - We are grateful for the assistance from Karen Taylor, Jean Bryce, and Nina Lamza for the preparation of the study diets and Sylvia Stephen and Lorna Hermitage for their support in the Human Nutrition Unit. The authors’ responsibilities were as follows—AMJ, CF, and GH: were responsible for the study concept and design; AMJ, MN, and CF: were responsible for data collection and collation; and AMJ, MN, CF, and GH: were responsible for data analysis and for the first draft and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. None of the authors had a personal or financial conflict of interest.

PY - 2014/8/1

Y1 - 2014/8/1

N2 - Background: There is limited evidence with regard to the effect of different sources of protein on appetite during weight loss. Vegetarian and meat-based high-protein diets may have contrasting effects on appetite and biomarkers of protein-induced satiety.Objective: The aim was to assess appetite response to meat or vegetarian high-protein weight-loss (HPWL) diets in obese men to monitor plasma amino acid profile and gut peptide response as potential satiety biomarkers.Design: Twenty obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 34.8] men participated in a dietary intervention study. After 3 d of a maintenance diet, they were provided in a crossover design with either a vegetarian HPWL (Soy-HPWL) or a meat-based HPWL (Meat-HPWL) diet for 2 wk. Both diets comprised 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate, provided to measured resting metabolic rate. Body weight and the motivation to eat were measured daily. Plasma satiety biomarkers were collected during a test-meal challenge (5 h) at the end of each diet period.Results: Over the 2 wk, subjects lost, on average, 2.41 and 2.27 kg with consumption of the Soy- and Meat-HPWL diets, respectively [P = 0.352; SE of the difference (SED): 0.1]. ANOVA confirmed that subjectively rated hunger (P = 0.569; SED: 3.8); fullness (P = 0.404; SED: 4.1), desire to eat (P = 0.356; SED: 3.7), preservation of lean body mass (P = 0.334; SED: 0.2), and loss of percentage fat mass (P = 0.179; SED: 0.2) did not differ between the 2 HPWL diets. There were differences in absolute concentrations of ghrelin and peptide YY between the 2 HPWL diets, although the response as net area under the curve was not different.Conclusions: Appetite control and weight loss were similar for both HPWL diets. Gut hormone profile was similar between the diets, which suggests that vegetarian diets can be as effective as meat-based diets for appetite control during weight loss.

AB - Background: There is limited evidence with regard to the effect of different sources of protein on appetite during weight loss. Vegetarian and meat-based high-protein diets may have contrasting effects on appetite and biomarkers of protein-induced satiety.Objective: The aim was to assess appetite response to meat or vegetarian high-protein weight-loss (HPWL) diets in obese men to monitor plasma amino acid profile and gut peptide response as potential satiety biomarkers.Design: Twenty obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 34.8] men participated in a dietary intervention study. After 3 d of a maintenance diet, they were provided in a crossover design with either a vegetarian HPWL (Soy-HPWL) or a meat-based HPWL (Meat-HPWL) diet for 2 wk. Both diets comprised 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate, provided to measured resting metabolic rate. Body weight and the motivation to eat were measured daily. Plasma satiety biomarkers were collected during a test-meal challenge (5 h) at the end of each diet period.Results: Over the 2 wk, subjects lost, on average, 2.41 and 2.27 kg with consumption of the Soy- and Meat-HPWL diets, respectively [P = 0.352; SE of the difference (SED): 0.1]. ANOVA confirmed that subjectively rated hunger (P = 0.569; SED: 3.8); fullness (P = 0.404; SED: 4.1), desire to eat (P = 0.356; SED: 3.7), preservation of lean body mass (P = 0.334; SED: 0.2), and loss of percentage fat mass (P = 0.179; SED: 0.2) did not differ between the 2 HPWL diets. There were differences in absolute concentrations of ghrelin and peptide YY between the 2 HPWL diets, although the response as net area under the curve was not different.Conclusions: Appetite control and weight loss were similar for both HPWL diets. Gut hormone profile was similar between the diets, which suggests that vegetarian diets can be as effective as meat-based diets for appetite control during weight loss.

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.113.077503

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.113.077503

M3 - Article

VL - 100

SP - 548

EP - 558

JO - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 2

ER -