Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been applied widely and successfully in conventional and unconventional reservoirs, and can be used to investigate petrophysical properties and fluid flow characteristics. This non-destructive, sensitive, and quick technique has been utilized in determination of pore type, porosity, pore size distribution, permeability prediction, wettability estimation, and fluid type, state and flow behavior. In this paper, the application of NMR to investigate coalbed methane and shale reservoirs is reviewed. Most of the reviewed studies are related to porosity and pore characteristics, which can be determined by analyzing the characteristics of the T2 distribution, allowing for examination of pore type and pore connectivity as well as calculation of total porosity and pore size distribution. Permeability models developed for reservoir rocks and based on porosity determined using NMR are well established and have been extended or modified to evaluate the permeability of coal or shale. Reviewed studies also include wettability investigation by comparing the subtraction of T2 distribution before and after fluid injection. Reviewed recent advances have further discussed the method of distinguishing fluid type, fluid state, and simulating fluid behavior using one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR methods combined with changes of T2 distribution. The aim of this review is to provide readers with an overview of the capabilities of NMR and its extension to scientific research by improving the parameter optimization of the instrument and establishing the calculation method for effective surface relaxivity for coals or shales.
- Fluid flow characteristics
- Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
- Permeability prediction
- Pore properties
- Unconventional reservoir