Appropriate age range for introduction of complementary feeding into an infant’s diet

Jacqueline Castenmiller, Stefaan de Henauw, Karen-Ildico Hirsch-Ernst, John kearney, Helle Katrine Knutsen, Alexandre Maciuk, Inge Mangelsdorf, Harry McArdle, Androniki Naska, Carmen Pelaez, Kristina Pentieva, Frank Thies, Alfonso Siani, Sophia Tsabouri, Marco Vincenti, Jean-Louis Bresson, Mary Fewtrell, Mathilde Kersting, Hildegard Przyrembel, Celine Dumas & 3 others Ariane Titz, Dominic Turck, EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) revised its 2009 Opinion on the appropriate age for introduction of complementary feeding of infants. This age has been evaluated considering the effects on health outcomes, nutritional aspects and infant development, and depends on the individual's characteristics and development. As long as foods have an age‐appropriate texture, are nutritionally appropriate and prepared following good hygiene practices, there is no convincing evidence that at any age investigated in the included studies (< 1 to < 6 months), the introduction of complementary foods (CFs) is associated with adverse health effects or benefits (except for infants at risk of iron depletion). For nutritional reasons, the majority of infants need CFs from around 6 months of age. Infants at risk of iron depletion (exclusively breastfed infants born to mothers with low iron status, or with early umbilical cord clamping (< 1 min after birth), or born preterm, or born small‐for‐gestational age or with high growth velocity) may benefit from earlier introduction of CFs that are a source of iron. The earliest developmental skills relevant for consuming pureed CFs can be observed between 3 and 4 months of age. Skills for consuming finger foods can be observed in some infants at 4 months, but more commonly at 5–7 months. The fact that an infant may be ready from a neurodevelopmental perspective to progress to a more diversified diet before 6 months of age does not imply that there is a need to introduce CFs. There is no reason to postpone the introduction of potentially allergenic foods (egg, cereals, fish and peanut) to a later age than that of other CFs as far as the risk of developing atopic diseases is concerned. Regarding the risk of coeliac disease, gluten can be introduced with other CFs.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere5780
Number of pages241
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume17
Issue number9
Early online date12 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
infant feeding
complementary foods
Diet
Food
diet
iron
Iron
pureed foods
good hygiene practices
infant development
umbilical cord
novel foods
celiac disease
allergens
gluten
peanuts
Glutens
Umbilical Cord
texture

Keywords

  • complementary food
  • introduction
  • timing
  • infant
  • helath outcome
  • development
  • systematic review
  • health outcome
  • TYPE-1 DIABETES-MELLITUS
  • LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT
  • SOLID FOOD INTRODUCTION
  • SKIN-TEST SIZE
  • EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURES
  • 1ST 2 YEARS
  • GLASS SECONDARY ANALYSIS
  • BODY-MASS INDEX
  • BREAST-FED INFANTS
  • FORMULA-FED INFANTS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary (miscalleneous)
  • Plant Science
  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology

Cite this

Castenmiller, J., de Henauw, S., Hirsch-Ernst, K-I., kearney, J., Knutsen, H. K., Maciuk, A., ... EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) (2019). Appropriate age range for introduction of complementary feeding into an infant’s diet. EFSA Journal, 17(9), [e5780]. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5780

Appropriate age range for introduction of complementary feeding into an infant’s diet. / Castenmiller, Jacqueline ; de Henauw, Stefaan; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen-Ildico; kearney, John; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Maciuk, Alexandre; Mangelsdorf, Inge; McArdle, Harry; Naska, Androniki; Pelaez, Carmen; Pentieva, Kristina; Thies, Frank; Siani, Alfonso; Tsabouri, Sophia; Vincenti, Marco; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Fewtrell, Mary; Kersting, Mathilde; Przyrembel, Hildegard; Dumas, Celine; Titz, Ariane; Turck, Dominic; EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA).

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 17, No. 9, e5780, 09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Castenmiller, J, de Henauw, S, Hirsch-Ernst, K-I, kearney, J, Knutsen, HK, Maciuk, A, Mangelsdorf, I, McArdle, H, Naska, A, Pelaez, C, Pentieva, K, Thies, F, Siani, A, Tsabouri, S, Vincenti, M, Bresson, J-L, Fewtrell, M, Kersting, M, Przyrembel, H, Dumas, C, Titz, A, Turck, D & EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) 2019, 'Appropriate age range for introduction of complementary feeding into an infant’s diet', EFSA Journal, vol. 17, no. 9, e5780. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5780
Castenmiller J, de Henauw S, Hirsch-Ernst K-I, kearney J, Knutsen HK, Maciuk A et al. Appropriate age range for introduction of complementary feeding into an infant’s diet. EFSA Journal. 2019 Sep;17(9). e5780. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5780
Castenmiller, Jacqueline ; de Henauw, Stefaan ; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen-Ildico ; kearney, John ; Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Maciuk, Alexandre ; Mangelsdorf, Inge ; McArdle, Harry ; Naska, Androniki ; Pelaez, Carmen ; Pentieva, Kristina ; Thies, Frank ; Siani, Alfonso ; Tsabouri, Sophia ; Vincenti, Marco ; Bresson, Jean-Louis ; Fewtrell, Mary ; Kersting, Mathilde ; Przyrembel, Hildegard ; Dumas, Celine ; Titz, Ariane ; Turck, Dominic ; EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA). / Appropriate age range for introduction of complementary feeding into an infant’s diet. In: EFSA Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 17, No. 9.
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