Arcuate AgRP neurons and the regulation of energy balance

Céline Cansell, Raphaël G P Denis, Aurélie Joly-Amado, Julien Castel, Serge Luquet

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus contains at least two populations of neurons that continuously monitor signals reflecting energy status and promote the appropriate behavioral and metabolic responses to changes in energy demand. Activation of neurons making pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure through activation of G protein-coupled melanocortin receptors via the release of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Until recently, the prevailing idea was that the neighboring neurons [agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons] co-expressing the orexigenic neuropeptides, AgRP, and neuropeptide Y increase feeding by opposing the anorexigenic actions of the POMC neurons. However, it has now been demonstrated that only AgRP neurons activation - not POMC neurons inhibition - is necessary and sufficient to promote feeding. Projections of AgRP-expressing axons innervate mesolimbic, midbrain, and pontine structures where they regulate feeding and feeding-independent functions such as reward or peripheral nutrient partitioning. AgRP neurons also make gamma aminobutyric acid , which is now thought to mediate many of critical functions of these neurons in a melanocortin-independent manner and on a timescale compatible with neuromodulation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169
Number of pages7
JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
Volume3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Dec 2012

Fingerprint

Agouti-Related Protein
Neurons
Pro-Opiomelanocortin
Melanocortin Receptors
Melanocortins
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones
Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus
Neuropeptide Y
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
Mesencephalon
Neuropeptides
Reward
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Energy Metabolism
Axons
Eating

Keywords

  • neuropeptide Y
  • agouti-related protein
  • GABA
  • feeding behavior
  • metabolism
  • obesity
  • reward
  • dopamine

Cite this

Cansell, C., Denis, R. G. P., Joly-Amado, A., Castel, J., & Luquet, S. (2012). Arcuate AgRP neurons and the regulation of energy balance. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 3, [169]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2012.00169

Arcuate AgRP neurons and the regulation of energy balance. / Cansell, Céline; Denis, Raphaël G P; Joly-Amado, Aurélie; Castel, Julien; Luquet, Serge.

In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol. 3, 169, 27.12.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

Cansell, C, Denis, RGP, Joly-Amado, A, Castel, J & Luquet, S 2012, 'Arcuate AgRP neurons and the regulation of energy balance', Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 3, 169. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2012.00169
Cansell, Céline ; Denis, Raphaël G P ; Joly-Amado, Aurélie ; Castel, Julien ; Luquet, Serge. / Arcuate AgRP neurons and the regulation of energy balance. In: Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2012 ; Vol. 3.
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N1 - ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was supported by young investigator ATIP grant from the CNRS, a research fellowship from and a grant by the “Agence Nationale de la Recherche” ANR-09-BLAN-0267-02. Céline Cansell received a PhD fellowship from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and a research grant from the Société Francophone du Diabète-Roche (SFD). Aurélie Joly Amado received a National Merit Scholarship from the French Department of National Education and Research and a research grant from the SFNEP-ANTADIR. Raphaël G. P. Denis received a research fellowship from the Region Île-de-France. We would like to express our gratitude to Richard D. Palmiter and Diane Durnam for fruitful comments on the manuscript and for editing.

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N2 - The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus contains at least two populations of neurons that continuously monitor signals reflecting energy status and promote the appropriate behavioral and metabolic responses to changes in energy demand. Activation of neurons making pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure through activation of G protein-coupled melanocortin receptors via the release of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Until recently, the prevailing idea was that the neighboring neurons [agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons] co-expressing the orexigenic neuropeptides, AgRP, and neuropeptide Y increase feeding by opposing the anorexigenic actions of the POMC neurons. However, it has now been demonstrated that only AgRP neurons activation - not POMC neurons inhibition - is necessary and sufficient to promote feeding. Projections of AgRP-expressing axons innervate mesolimbic, midbrain, and pontine structures where they regulate feeding and feeding-independent functions such as reward or peripheral nutrient partitioning. AgRP neurons also make gamma aminobutyric acid , which is now thought to mediate many of critical functions of these neurons in a melanocortin-independent manner and on a timescale compatible with neuromodulation.

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