Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern

anisakiasis

Miguel Bao Dominguez, Graham J Pierce, Santiago Pascual, Miguel González-Muñoz, Simonetta Mattiucci, Ivona Mladineo, Paolo Cipriani, Ivana Bušelić, Norval J. C. Strachan

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Abstract

Anisakiasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by the fish parasitic nematode Anisakis. Spain appears to have the highest reported incidence in Europe and marinated anchovies are recognised as the main food vehicle. Using data on fishery landings, fish infection rates and consumption habits of the Spanish population from questionnaires, we developed a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model for the anchovy value chain. Spaniards were estimated to consume on average 0.66 Anisakis per untreated (non-frozen) raw or marinated anchovy meal. A dose-response relationship was generated and the probability of anisakiasis was calculated to be 9.56 × 10−5 per meal, and the number of annual anisakiasis cases requiring medical attention was predicted between 7,700 and 8,320. Monte Carlo simulations estimated post-mortem migration of Anisakis from viscera to flesh increases the disease burden by >1000% whilst an education campaign to freeze anchovy before consumption may reduce cases by 80%. However, most of the questionnaire respondents who ate untreated meals knew how to prevent Anisakis infection. The QRA suggests that previously reported figures of 500 anisakiasis per year in Europe is a considerable underestimate. The QRA tool can be used by policy makers and informs industry, health professionals and consumers about this underdiagnosed zoonosis.
Original languageEnglish
Article number43699
JournalScientific Reports
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Mar 2017

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Anisakiasis
Anisakis
Zoonoses
Meals
Fishes
Fisheries
Viscera
Infection
Administrative Personnel
Spain
Habits
Industry
Education
Food
Incidence
Health
Population
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • mathematics and computing
  • parasitic infection
  • parasitology

Cite this

Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern : anisakiasis. / Bao Dominguez, Miguel; Pierce, Graham J; Pascual, Santiago ; González-Muñoz, Miguel; Mattiucci, Simonetta ; Mladineo, Ivona; Cipriani, Paolo ; Bušelić, Ivana; Strachan, Norval J. C.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, 43699, 13.03.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bao Dominguez, M, Pierce, GJ, Pascual, S, González-Muñoz, M, Mattiucci, S, Mladineo, I, Cipriani, P, Bušelić, I & Strachan, NJC 2017, 'Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern: anisakiasis', Scientific Reports, vol. 7, 43699. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep43699
Bao Dominguez M, Pierce GJ, Pascual S, González-Muñoz M, Mattiucci S, Mladineo I et al. Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern: anisakiasis. Scientific Reports. 2017 Mar 13;7. 43699. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep43699
Bao Dominguez, Miguel ; Pierce, Graham J ; Pascual, Santiago ; González-Muñoz, Miguel ; Mattiucci, Simonetta ; Mladineo, Ivona ; Cipriani, Paolo ; Bušelić, Ivana ; Strachan, Norval J. C. / Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern : anisakiasis. In: Scientific Reports. 2017 ; Vol. 7.
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abstract = "Anisakiasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by the fish parasitic nematode Anisakis. Spain appears to have the highest reported incidence in Europe and marinated anchovies are recognised as the main food vehicle. Using data on fishery landings, fish infection rates and consumption habits of the Spanish population from questionnaires, we developed a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model for the anchovy value chain. Spaniards were estimated to consume on average 0.66 Anisakis per untreated (non-frozen) raw or marinated anchovy meal. A dose-response relationship was generated and the probability of anisakiasis was calculated to be 9.56 × 10−5 per meal, and the number of annual anisakiasis cases requiring medical attention was predicted between 7,700 and 8,320. Monte Carlo simulations estimated post-mortem migration of Anisakis from viscera to flesh increases the disease burden by >1000{\%} whilst an education campaign to freeze anchovy before consumption may reduce cases by 80{\%}. However, most of the questionnaire respondents who ate untreated meals knew how to prevent Anisakis infection. The QRA suggests that previously reported figures of 500 anisakiasis per year in Europe is a considerable underestimate. The QRA tool can be used by policy makers and informs industry, health professionals and consumers about this underdiagnosed zoonosis.",
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note = "The authors sincerely thank the Biobanking platform at the PARASITE project (EU FP7 PARASITE project (GA no. 312068)) for providing host-parasite data. We thank Rosa Fern{\'a}ndez and Cristina Mart{\'i}nez from CETMAR for their help during creation and divulgation of the questionnaires. We also thank Arturo del Rey Moreno (“Antequera” hospital) for his helpful comments. We are also grateful to “Subdirecci{\'o}n General de Econom{\'i}a Pesquera” of “Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentaci{\'o}n y Medio Ambiente” (MAGRAMA) of the Spanish government for providing anchovy trade statistics for 2013. M. Bao is supported by a PhD grant from the University of Aberdeen and also by financial support of the contract from the EU Project PARASITE (grant number 312068).",
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