Objective: In the study of bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, there is some evidence suggesting a phenotypic and genetic overlap between the two disorders. A possible link between bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia remains arguable, however. The authors hypothesized that dysbindin, which is a probable susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, was associated with bipolar affective disorder and tested this hypothesis using a case-control design study. Method: Participants included 213 patients with bipolar I disorder and 197 comparison subjects. In each subject, 10 polymorphisms in the dysbindin gene were genotyped and assessed. Results: Two polymorphisms showed individual genotypic association with bipolar I disorder. Multiple marker haplotypes were more strongly associated, with the rarer of the two common haplotypes being overrepresented in the patients with bipolar affective disorder. A similar finding was reported in patients with schizophrenia in a previous study. Conclusions: Findings suggest that the human dysbindin gene may play a role in the susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder, which underscores a potentially important area of etiological overlap with schizophrenia. The existence of shared genetic risk factors will, in time, lead to changes in the current nosology of major psychoses.