Atlantic salmon post-smolts adapted for a longer time to seawater develop an effective humoral and cellular immune response against Salmonid alphavirus

N. Nuñez-Ortiz, L. J. Moore, J. Jarungsriapisit, T. O. Nilsen, S. Stefansson, H. C. Morton, G. L. Taranger, C. J. Secombes, S. Patel* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes pancreas disease (PD) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and disease outbreaks are mainly detected after seawater transfer. The influence of the smoltification process on the immune responses, specifically the adaptive response of Atlantic salmon after SAV infection, is not fully understood. In this study, Atlantic salmon post-smolts were infected by either bath immersion (BI) or intramuscular injection (IM) with SAV subtype 3, 2 weeks (Phase A) or 9 weeks (Phase B) after seawater transfer. The transcript levels of genes related to cellular, humoral and inflammatory responses were evaluated on head kidney samples collected at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infection (dpi). Corresponding negative control groups (CT) were established accordingly. Significant differences were found between both phases and between the IM and BI groups. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was up-regulated in Phase A at a higher level than in Phase B. High mRNA levels of the genes RIG-1, SOCS1 and STAT1 were observed in all groups except the BI-B group (BI-Phase B). Moreover, the IM-B group showed a higher regulation of genes related to cellular responses, such as CD40, MHCII, and IL-15, that indicated the activation of a strong cell-mediated immune response. CD40 mRNA levels were elevated one week earlier in the BI-B group than in the BI-A group (BI-Phase A). A significant up-regulation of IgM and IgT genes was seen in both IM groups, but the presence of neutralizing antibodies to SAV was detected only in Phase B fish at 21 and 28 dpi. In addition, we found differences in the basal levels of some of the analysed genes between non-infected control groups of both phases. Findings suggest that Atlantic salmon post-smolts adapted for a longer time to seawater before they come into contact with SAV, developed a stronger humoral and cell-mediated immune response during a SAV infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)579-590
Number of pages12
JournalFish and Shellfish Immunology
Volume82
Early online date31 Aug 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018

Fingerprint

Alphavirus
smolt
smolts
salmonid
immune response
Seawater
humoral immunity
cell-mediated immunity
Salmo salar
seawater
Genes
intramuscular injection
gene
genes
infection
pancreas disease
Interleukin-15
Messenger RNA
smoltification
Neutralizing Antibodies

Keywords

  • Adaptive response
  • B cells
  • Bath immersion
  • CD40
  • Immunoglobulin
  • Interleukin
  • Pancreas disease
  • RIG-1
  • Salmo salar
  • Smoltification
  • SOCS1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

Atlantic salmon post-smolts adapted for a longer time to seawater develop an effective humoral and cellular immune response against Salmonid alphavirus. / Nuñez-Ortiz, N.; Moore, L. J.; Jarungsriapisit, J.; Nilsen, T. O.; Stefansson, S.; Morton, H. C.; Taranger, G. L.; Secombes, C. J.; Patel, S. (Corresponding Author).

In: Fish and Shellfish Immunology, Vol. 82, 01.11.2018, p. 579-590.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nuñez-Ortiz, N. ; Moore, L. J. ; Jarungsriapisit, J. ; Nilsen, T. O. ; Stefansson, S. ; Morton, H. C. ; Taranger, G. L. ; Secombes, C. J. ; Patel, S. / Atlantic salmon post-smolts adapted for a longer time to seawater develop an effective humoral and cellular immune response against Salmonid alphavirus. In: Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 2018 ; Vol. 82. pp. 579-590.
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abstract = "Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes pancreas disease (PD) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and disease outbreaks are mainly detected after seawater transfer. The influence of the smoltification process on the immune responses, specifically the adaptive response of Atlantic salmon after SAV infection, is not fully understood. In this study, Atlantic salmon post-smolts were infected by either bath immersion (BI) or intramuscular injection (IM) with SAV subtype 3, 2 weeks (Phase A) or 9 weeks (Phase B) after seawater transfer. The transcript levels of genes related to cellular, humoral and inflammatory responses were evaluated on head kidney samples collected at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infection (dpi). Corresponding negative control groups (CT) were established accordingly. Significant differences were found between both phases and between the IM and BI groups. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was up-regulated in Phase A at a higher level than in Phase B. High mRNA levels of the genes RIG-1, SOCS1 and STAT1 were observed in all groups except the BI-B group (BI-Phase B). Moreover, the IM-B group showed a higher regulation of genes related to cellular responses, such as CD40, MHCII, and IL-15, that indicated the activation of a strong cell-mediated immune response. CD40 mRNA levels were elevated one week earlier in the BI-B group than in the BI-A group (BI-Phase A). A significant up-regulation of IgM and IgT genes was seen in both IM groups, but the presence of neutralizing antibodies to SAV was detected only in Phase B fish at 21 and 28 dpi. In addition, we found differences in the basal levels of some of the analysed genes between non-infected control groups of both phases. Findings suggest that Atlantic salmon post-smolts adapted for a longer time to seawater before they come into contact with SAV, developed a stronger humoral and cell-mediated immune response during a SAV infection.",
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AU - Nuñez-Ortiz, N.

AU - Moore, L. J.

AU - Jarungsriapisit, J.

AU - Nilsen, T. O.

AU - Stefansson, S.

AU - Morton, H. C.

AU - Taranger, G. L.

AU - Secombes, C. J.

AU - Patel, S.

N1 - This research was funded by the Research Council of Norway [grant number 224885/E40].

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