Attitudes towards urban howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in Paraguay

Rebecca Louise Smith* (Corresponding Author), Marco Alesci, Jorge Damian Ayala, Andrea Camperio Ciani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


Increasing urbanisation is encroaching into natural habitats and sometimes forcing wildlife into urban centres. Whether or not wildlife can thrive in an urban environment is dependent on many factors, one of which is how the species is perceived by local people. This study focuses on the city of Pilar in south-west Paraguay, which is home to a population of urban-dwelling black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya). Using semi-structured interviews, we assessed peoples’ attitudes towards the presence of howlers, whether they perceived the monkeys to cause problems in the city, what they believed were the biggest threats to the monkeys, and whether they felt that the presence of monkeys in the city was compatible with their way of life in the long term. Overall, we found that the majority of interviewees had positive attitudes towards the monkeys, believing that they brought benefits to the city and that they should be protected from potential risks in the urban environment. Our results provide the basis for collaborative, community-based development of management strategies for the long-term survival of these urban monkeys.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161–171
Number of pages11
Early online date10 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • Ethno-primatology
  • South America
  • Local perceptions
  • Semi-structured interviews
  • Urban primates


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