Authorised EU health claims for the essential fatty acids: n-6 linoleic (18:2n-6) and n-3 -linolenic (18:3n-3) acids

K. W.J. Wahle*, S. D. Heys, D. Rotondo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This chapter considers the authorised health claims that can be made by food manufacturers as stipulated by EFSA and the EU in relation to the content of n-3 (alpha-linolenic, ALA, 18:3) and n-6 (linoleic, LA, 18:2) acids, the only two true essential fatty acids, in their products. Such authorised claims are a powerful marketing tool and greatly sought after by food producers. Since n-6 EFA (mainly LA) are generally in significant excess to their requirements compared with n-3 EFA (ALA) in western-type diets the health claims relate mainly to the proportion of n-3 ALA in the products. Furthermore, the beneficial health effects of ALA are intimately related to those of their longer-chain, more unsaturated derivatives eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3;EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3, DHA). The ability of humans to convert ALA to these derivatives is low and depends on age, gender and prior diet. High LA content of the diet suppresses the already low conversion rate of ALA to its important derivatives; reducing LA content has the opposite effect. These are considerations that food producers need to be aware off. This chapter highlights the health claims for EFA that have been given authorisation by EFSA/EU. It also suggests that in certain areas of deliberation EFSA has been rather too rigid and restrictive in its emphasis on only healthy populations and has overlooked possible health benefits in sub-groups of the population with evidence of disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease. We believe that it is difficult to determine health benefits of any nutrient when administered to a healthy population compared to a less healthy group. Possible future areas where EFSA/EU authorisation is likely are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFoods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims
EditorsM.J. Sadler
PublisherElsevier
Pages219-236
Number of pages18
Volume2
ISBN (Electronic)9781782424031
ISBN (Print)9781782423829
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

health claims
Essential Fatty Acids
essential fatty acids
Fatty acids
food industry
Health
Food
Acids
acids
Insurance Benefits
Nutrition
diet
eicosapentaenoic acid
Diet
Derivatives
docosahexaenoic acid
cardiovascular diseases
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
marketing
Docosahexaenoic Acids

Keywords

  • Alpha-linolenic, linoleic
  • Docosahexaenoic acid
  • EFA metabolism
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid
  • Essential fatty acids
  • EU authorised claims
  • Health benefits

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Wahle, K. W. J., Heys, S. D., & Rotondo, D. (2015). Authorised EU health claims for the essential fatty acids: n-6 linoleic (18:2n-6) and n-3 -linolenic (18:3n-3) acids. In M. J. Sadler (Ed.), Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims (Vol. 2, pp. 219-236). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-382-9.00012-8

Authorised EU health claims for the essential fatty acids : n-6 linoleic (18:2n-6) and n-3 -linolenic (18:3n-3) acids. / Wahle, K. W.J.; Heys, S. D.; Rotondo, D.

Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims. ed. / M.J. Sadler. Vol. 2 Elsevier, 2015. p. 219-236.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Wahle, KWJ, Heys, SD & Rotondo, D 2015, Authorised EU health claims for the essential fatty acids: n-6 linoleic (18:2n-6) and n-3 -linolenic (18:3n-3) acids. in MJ Sadler (ed.), Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims. vol. 2, Elsevier, pp. 219-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-382-9.00012-8
Wahle KWJ, Heys SD, Rotondo D. Authorised EU health claims for the essential fatty acids: n-6 linoleic (18:2n-6) and n-3 -linolenic (18:3n-3) acids. In Sadler MJ, editor, Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims. Vol. 2. Elsevier. 2015. p. 219-236 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-382-9.00012-8
Wahle, K. W.J. ; Heys, S. D. ; Rotondo, D. / Authorised EU health claims for the essential fatty acids : n-6 linoleic (18:2n-6) and n-3 -linolenic (18:3n-3) acids. Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims. editor / M.J. Sadler. Vol. 2 Elsevier, 2015. pp. 219-236
@inbook{1423f9c99e234d0b84f30381e4ce780d,
title = "Authorised EU health claims for the essential fatty acids: n-6 linoleic (18:2n-6) and n-3 -linolenic (18:3n-3) acids",
abstract = "This chapter considers the authorised health claims that can be made by food manufacturers as stipulated by EFSA and the EU in relation to the content of n-3 (alpha-linolenic, ALA, 18:3) and n-6 (linoleic, LA, 18:2) acids, the only two true essential fatty acids, in their products. Such authorised claims are a powerful marketing tool and greatly sought after by food producers. Since n-6 EFA (mainly LA) are generally in significant excess to their requirements compared with n-3 EFA (ALA) in western-type diets the health claims relate mainly to the proportion of n-3 ALA in the products. Furthermore, the beneficial health effects of ALA are intimately related to those of their longer-chain, more unsaturated derivatives eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3;EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3, DHA). The ability of humans to convert ALA to these derivatives is low and depends on age, gender and prior diet. High LA content of the diet suppresses the already low conversion rate of ALA to its important derivatives; reducing LA content has the opposite effect. These are considerations that food producers need to be aware off. This chapter highlights the health claims for EFA that have been given authorisation by EFSA/EU. It also suggests that in certain areas of deliberation EFSA has been rather too rigid and restrictive in its emphasis on only healthy populations and has overlooked possible health benefits in sub-groups of the population with evidence of disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease. We believe that it is difficult to determine health benefits of any nutrient when administered to a healthy population compared to a less healthy group. Possible future areas where EFSA/EU authorisation is likely are also discussed.",
keywords = "Alpha-linolenic, linoleic, Docosahexaenoic acid, EFA metabolism, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Essential fatty acids, EU authorised claims, Health benefits",
author = "Wahle, {K. W.J.} and Heys, {S. D.} and D. Rotondo",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1016/B978-1-78242-382-9.00012-8",
language = "English",
isbn = "9781782423829",
volume = "2",
pages = "219--236",
editor = "M.J. Sadler",
booktitle = "Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims",
publisher = "Elsevier",
address = "United States",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Authorised EU health claims for the essential fatty acids

T2 - n-6 linoleic (18:2n-6) and n-3 -linolenic (18:3n-3) acids

AU - Wahle, K. W.J.

AU - Heys, S. D.

AU - Rotondo, D.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - This chapter considers the authorised health claims that can be made by food manufacturers as stipulated by EFSA and the EU in relation to the content of n-3 (alpha-linolenic, ALA, 18:3) and n-6 (linoleic, LA, 18:2) acids, the only two true essential fatty acids, in their products. Such authorised claims are a powerful marketing tool and greatly sought after by food producers. Since n-6 EFA (mainly LA) are generally in significant excess to their requirements compared with n-3 EFA (ALA) in western-type diets the health claims relate mainly to the proportion of n-3 ALA in the products. Furthermore, the beneficial health effects of ALA are intimately related to those of their longer-chain, more unsaturated derivatives eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3;EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3, DHA). The ability of humans to convert ALA to these derivatives is low and depends on age, gender and prior diet. High LA content of the diet suppresses the already low conversion rate of ALA to its important derivatives; reducing LA content has the opposite effect. These are considerations that food producers need to be aware off. This chapter highlights the health claims for EFA that have been given authorisation by EFSA/EU. It also suggests that in certain areas of deliberation EFSA has been rather too rigid and restrictive in its emphasis on only healthy populations and has overlooked possible health benefits in sub-groups of the population with evidence of disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease. We believe that it is difficult to determine health benefits of any nutrient when administered to a healthy population compared to a less healthy group. Possible future areas where EFSA/EU authorisation is likely are also discussed.

AB - This chapter considers the authorised health claims that can be made by food manufacturers as stipulated by EFSA and the EU in relation to the content of n-3 (alpha-linolenic, ALA, 18:3) and n-6 (linoleic, LA, 18:2) acids, the only two true essential fatty acids, in their products. Such authorised claims are a powerful marketing tool and greatly sought after by food producers. Since n-6 EFA (mainly LA) are generally in significant excess to their requirements compared with n-3 EFA (ALA) in western-type diets the health claims relate mainly to the proportion of n-3 ALA in the products. Furthermore, the beneficial health effects of ALA are intimately related to those of their longer-chain, more unsaturated derivatives eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3;EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3, DHA). The ability of humans to convert ALA to these derivatives is low and depends on age, gender and prior diet. High LA content of the diet suppresses the already low conversion rate of ALA to its important derivatives; reducing LA content has the opposite effect. These are considerations that food producers need to be aware off. This chapter highlights the health claims for EFA that have been given authorisation by EFSA/EU. It also suggests that in certain areas of deliberation EFSA has been rather too rigid and restrictive in its emphasis on only healthy populations and has overlooked possible health benefits in sub-groups of the population with evidence of disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease. We believe that it is difficult to determine health benefits of any nutrient when administered to a healthy population compared to a less healthy group. Possible future areas where EFSA/EU authorisation is likely are also discussed.

KW - Alpha-linolenic, linoleic

KW - Docosahexaenoic acid

KW - EFA metabolism

KW - Eicosapentaenoic acid

KW - Essential fatty acids

KW - EU authorised claims

KW - Health benefits

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85041461997&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/B978-1-78242-382-9.00012-8

DO - 10.1016/B978-1-78242-382-9.00012-8

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:85041461997

SN - 9781782423829

VL - 2

SP - 219

EP - 236

BT - Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims

A2 - Sadler, M.J.

PB - Elsevier

ER -