Bedrock geology of DFDP-2B, central Alpine Fault, New Zealand

Virginia Gail Toy (Corresponding Author), Rupert Sutherland, John Townend, Michael J Allen, Leeza Becroft, Austin Boles, Carolyn J Boulton, Brett M. Carpenter, Simon C. Cox, Christopher Daube, Dan Faulkner, Angela Halfpenny, Naoki Kato, Stephen Keys, Martina Kirilova, Yusuke Kometani, Timothy Little, Elisabetta Mariani, Ben Melosh, Catriona D MenziesLuiz Morales, Chance Morgan, Hiroshi Mori, Andre Niemeijer, Richard Norris, Dave Prior, Katrina Sauer, Anja M. Schleicher, Norio Shigematsu, Damon A. H. Teagle, Harold Tobin, Robert Valdez, Jack Williams, Samantha Yeo, Laura-May Baratin, Nicolas Barth, Adrian Benson, Carolin Boese, Bernard Celerier, Calum Chamberlain, Ronald Conze, Jamie Coussens, Lisa Craw, Mai-Linh Doan, Jennifer Eccles, Jason Grieve, Julia Grochowski, Anton Gulley, Jamie Howarth, Katrina Jacobs, Lucie Janku-Capova, Tamara Jeppson, Rob Langridge, Deirdre Mallyon, Ray Marx, Cecile Massiot, Loren Mathewson, Jo Moore, Osamu Nishikawa, Brent Pooley, Alex Pyne, Martha Savage, Doug R. Schmitt, Sam Taylor-Offord, Phaedra Upton, Konrad Weaver, Thomas Wiersberg, Martin Zimmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During the second phase of the Alpine Fault, Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) in the Whataroa River, South Westland, New Zealand, bedrock was encountered in the DFDP-2B borehole from 238.5–893.2 m Measured Depth (MD). Continuous sampling and meso- to microscale characterisation of whole rock cuttings established that, in sequence, the borehole sampled amphibolite facies, Torlesse Composite Terrane-derived schists, protomylonites and mylonites, terminating 200–400 m above an Alpine Fault Principal Slip Zone (PSZ) with a maximum dip of 62°. The most diagnostic structural features of increasing PSZ proximity were the occurrence of shear bands and reduction in mean quartz grain sizes. A change in composition to greater mica:quartz + feldspar, most markedly below c. 700 m MD, is inferred to result from either heterogeneous sampling or a change in lithology related to alteration. Major oxide variations suggest the fault-proximal Alpine Fault alteration zone, as previously defined in DFDP-1 core, was not sampled.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)497-518
Number of pages21
JournalNew Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics
Volume60
Issue number4
Early online date17 Oct 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

New Zealand
bedrock
geology
drilling
boreholes
slip
quartz
sampling
schist
lithology
mica
stopping
microbalances
rivers
proximity
grain size
occurrences
rocks
shear
borehole

Keywords

  • Alpine fault
  • New Zealand
  • scientific drilling
  • mylonite
  • cataclasite

Cite this

Toy, V. G., Sutherland, R., Townend, J., Allen, M. J., Becroft, L., Boles, A., ... Zimmer, M. (2017). Bedrock geology of DFDP-2B, central Alpine Fault, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 60(4), 497-518. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.2017.1375533

Bedrock geology of DFDP-2B, central Alpine Fault, New Zealand. / Toy, Virginia Gail (Corresponding Author); Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Allen, Michael J; Becroft, Leeza; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn J; Carpenter, Brett M.; Cox, Simon C.; Daube, Christopher; Faulkner, Dan; Halfpenny, Angela; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Stephen; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Little, Timothy; Mariani, Elisabetta; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona D; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Norris, Richard; Prior, Dave; Sauer, Katrina; Schleicher, Anja M.; Shigematsu, Norio; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Williams, Jack; Yeo, Samantha; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Benson, Adrian ; Boese, Carolin; Celerier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Conze, Ronald; Coussens, Jamie; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Jeppson, Tamara; Langridge, Rob; Mallyon, Deirdre; Marx, Ray; Massiot, Cecile; Mathewson, Loren; Moore, Jo; Nishikawa, Osamu; Pooley, Brent; Pyne, Alex; Savage, Martha; Schmitt, Doug R.; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Upton, Phaedra; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Zimmer, Martin.

In: New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2017, p. 497-518.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Toy, VG, Sutherland, R, Townend, J, Allen, MJ, Becroft, L, Boles, A, Boulton, CJ, Carpenter, BM, Cox, SC, Daube, C, Faulkner, D, Halfpenny, A, Kato, N, Keys, S, Kirilova, M, Kometani, Y, Little, T, Mariani, E, Melosh, B, Menzies, CD, Morales, L, Morgan, C, Mori, H, Niemeijer, A, Norris, R, Prior, D, Sauer, K, Schleicher, AM, Shigematsu, N, Teagle, DAH, Tobin, H, Valdez, R, Williams, J, Yeo, S, Baratin, L-M, Barth, N, Benson, A, Boese, C, Celerier, B, Chamberlain, C, Conze, R, Coussens, J, Craw, L, Doan, M-L, Eccles, J, Grieve, J, Grochowski, J, Gulley, A, Howarth, J, Jacobs, K, Janku-Capova, L, Jeppson, T, Langridge, R, Mallyon, D, Marx, R, Massiot, C, Mathewson, L, Moore, J, Nishikawa, O, Pooley, B, Pyne, A, Savage, M, Schmitt, DR, Taylor-Offord, S, Upton, P, Weaver, K, Wiersberg, T & Zimmer, M 2017, 'Bedrock geology of DFDP-2B, central Alpine Fault, New Zealand', New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 497-518. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.2017.1375533
Toy, Virginia Gail ; Sutherland, Rupert ; Townend, John ; Allen, Michael J ; Becroft, Leeza ; Boles, Austin ; Boulton, Carolyn J ; Carpenter, Brett M. ; Cox, Simon C. ; Daube, Christopher ; Faulkner, Dan ; Halfpenny, Angela ; Kato, Naoki ; Keys, Stephen ; Kirilova, Martina ; Kometani, Yusuke ; Little, Timothy ; Mariani, Elisabetta ; Melosh, Ben ; Menzies, Catriona D ; Morales, Luiz ; Morgan, Chance ; Mori, Hiroshi ; Niemeijer, Andre ; Norris, Richard ; Prior, Dave ; Sauer, Katrina ; Schleicher, Anja M. ; Shigematsu, Norio ; Teagle, Damon A. H. ; Tobin, Harold ; Valdez, Robert ; Williams, Jack ; Yeo, Samantha ; Baratin, Laura-May ; Barth, Nicolas ; Benson, Adrian ; Boese, Carolin ; Celerier, Bernard ; Chamberlain, Calum ; Conze, Ronald ; Coussens, Jamie ; Craw, Lisa ; Doan, Mai-Linh ; Eccles, Jennifer ; Grieve, Jason ; Grochowski, Julia ; Gulley, Anton ; Howarth, Jamie ; Jacobs, Katrina ; Janku-Capova, Lucie ; Jeppson, Tamara ; Langridge, Rob ; Mallyon, Deirdre ; Marx, Ray ; Massiot, Cecile ; Mathewson, Loren ; Moore, Jo ; Nishikawa, Osamu ; Pooley, Brent ; Pyne, Alex ; Savage, Martha ; Schmitt, Doug R. ; Taylor-Offord, Sam ; Upton, Phaedra ; Weaver, Konrad ; Wiersberg, Thomas ; Zimmer, Martin. / Bedrock geology of DFDP-2B, central Alpine Fault, New Zealand. In: New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics. 2017 ; Vol. 60, No. 4. pp. 497-518.
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title = "Bedrock geology of DFDP-2B, central Alpine Fault, New Zealand",
abstract = "During the second phase of the Alpine Fault, Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) in the Whataroa River, South Westland, New Zealand, bedrock was encountered in the DFDP-2B borehole from 238.5–893.2 m Measured Depth (MD). Continuous sampling and meso- to microscale characterisation of whole rock cuttings established that, in sequence, the borehole sampled amphibolite facies, Torlesse Composite Terrane-derived schists, protomylonites and mylonites, terminating 200–400 m above an Alpine Fault Principal Slip Zone (PSZ) with a maximum dip of 62°. The most diagnostic structural features of increasing PSZ proximity were the occurrence of shear bands and reduction in mean quartz grain sizes. A change in composition to greater mica:quartz + feldspar, most markedly below c. 700 m MD, is inferred to result from either heterogeneous sampling or a change in lithology related to alteration. Major oxide variations suggest the fault-proximal Alpine Fault alteration zone, as previously defined in DFDP-1 core, was not sampled.",
keywords = "Alpine fault, New Zealand, scientific drilling, mylonite, cataclasite",
author = "Toy, {Virginia Gail} and Rupert Sutherland and John Townend and Allen, {Michael J} and Leeza Becroft and Austin Boles and Boulton, {Carolyn J} and Carpenter, {Brett M.} and Cox, {Simon C.} and Christopher Daube and Dan Faulkner and Angela Halfpenny and Naoki Kato and Stephen Keys and Martina Kirilova and Yusuke Kometani and Timothy Little and Elisabetta Mariani and Ben Melosh and Menzies, {Catriona D} and Luiz Morales and Chance Morgan and Hiroshi Mori and Andre Niemeijer and Richard Norris and Dave Prior and Katrina Sauer and Schleicher, {Anja M.} and Norio Shigematsu and Teagle, {Damon A. H.} and Harold Tobin and Robert Valdez and Jack Williams and Samantha Yeo and Laura-May Baratin and Nicolas Barth and Adrian Benson and Carolin Boese and Bernard Celerier and Calum Chamberlain and Ronald Conze and Jamie Coussens and Lisa Craw and Mai-Linh Doan and Jennifer Eccles and Jason Grieve and Julia Grochowski and Anton Gulley and Jamie Howarth and Katrina Jacobs and Lucie Janku-Capova and Tamara Jeppson and Rob Langridge and Deirdre Mallyon and Ray Marx and Cecile Massiot and Loren Mathewson and Jo Moore and Osamu Nishikawa and Brent Pooley and Alex Pyne and Martha Savage and Schmitt, {Doug R.} and Sam Taylor-Offord and Phaedra Upton and Konrad Weaver and Thomas Wiersberg and Martin Zimmer",
note = "We thank the Friend family for land access and the Westland community for support; Schlumberger for assistance with optical fibre technology; the CNRS University of Montpellier wireline logging group of Pezard, Henry, Nitsch and Paris; Arnold Contracting; Eco Drilling; and Webster Drilling. This manuscript was greatly improved in response to suggestions by Andy Nicol and another anonymous reviewer, as well as substantial comments from the Editor, Nick Mortimer. Helpful suggestions were also made by Diane Moore and Brooks Proctor. We are very grateful for these contributions.",
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T1 - Bedrock geology of DFDP-2B, central Alpine Fault, New Zealand

AU - Toy, Virginia Gail

AU - Sutherland, Rupert

AU - Townend, John

AU - Allen, Michael J

AU - Becroft, Leeza

AU - Boles, Austin

AU - Boulton, Carolyn J

AU - Carpenter, Brett M.

AU - Cox, Simon C.

AU - Daube, Christopher

AU - Faulkner, Dan

AU - Halfpenny, Angela

AU - Kato, Naoki

AU - Keys, Stephen

AU - Kirilova, Martina

AU - Kometani, Yusuke

AU - Little, Timothy

AU - Mariani, Elisabetta

AU - Melosh, Ben

AU - Menzies, Catriona D

AU - Morales, Luiz

AU - Morgan, Chance

AU - Mori, Hiroshi

AU - Niemeijer, Andre

AU - Norris, Richard

AU - Prior, Dave

AU - Sauer, Katrina

AU - Schleicher, Anja M.

AU - Shigematsu, Norio

AU - Teagle, Damon A. H.

AU - Tobin, Harold

AU - Valdez, Robert

AU - Williams, Jack

AU - Yeo, Samantha

AU - Baratin, Laura-May

AU - Barth, Nicolas

AU - Benson, Adrian

AU - Boese, Carolin

AU - Celerier, Bernard

AU - Chamberlain, Calum

AU - Conze, Ronald

AU - Coussens, Jamie

AU - Craw, Lisa

AU - Doan, Mai-Linh

AU - Eccles, Jennifer

AU - Grieve, Jason

AU - Grochowski, Julia

AU - Gulley, Anton

AU - Howarth, Jamie

AU - Jacobs, Katrina

AU - Janku-Capova, Lucie

AU - Jeppson, Tamara

AU - Langridge, Rob

AU - Mallyon, Deirdre

AU - Marx, Ray

AU - Massiot, Cecile

AU - Mathewson, Loren

AU - Moore, Jo

AU - Nishikawa, Osamu

AU - Pooley, Brent

AU - Pyne, Alex

AU - Savage, Martha

AU - Schmitt, Doug R.

AU - Taylor-Offord, Sam

AU - Upton, Phaedra

AU - Weaver, Konrad

AU - Wiersberg, Thomas

AU - Zimmer, Martin

N1 - We thank the Friend family for land access and the Westland community for support; Schlumberger for assistance with optical fibre technology; the CNRS University of Montpellier wireline logging group of Pezard, Henry, Nitsch and Paris; Arnold Contracting; Eco Drilling; and Webster Drilling. This manuscript was greatly improved in response to suggestions by Andy Nicol and another anonymous reviewer, as well as substantial comments from the Editor, Nick Mortimer. Helpful suggestions were also made by Diane Moore and Brooks Proctor. We are very grateful for these contributions.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - During the second phase of the Alpine Fault, Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) in the Whataroa River, South Westland, New Zealand, bedrock was encountered in the DFDP-2B borehole from 238.5–893.2 m Measured Depth (MD). Continuous sampling and meso- to microscale characterisation of whole rock cuttings established that, in sequence, the borehole sampled amphibolite facies, Torlesse Composite Terrane-derived schists, protomylonites and mylonites, terminating 200–400 m above an Alpine Fault Principal Slip Zone (PSZ) with a maximum dip of 62°. The most diagnostic structural features of increasing PSZ proximity were the occurrence of shear bands and reduction in mean quartz grain sizes. A change in composition to greater mica:quartz + feldspar, most markedly below c. 700 m MD, is inferred to result from either heterogeneous sampling or a change in lithology related to alteration. Major oxide variations suggest the fault-proximal Alpine Fault alteration zone, as previously defined in DFDP-1 core, was not sampled.

AB - During the second phase of the Alpine Fault, Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) in the Whataroa River, South Westland, New Zealand, bedrock was encountered in the DFDP-2B borehole from 238.5–893.2 m Measured Depth (MD). Continuous sampling and meso- to microscale characterisation of whole rock cuttings established that, in sequence, the borehole sampled amphibolite facies, Torlesse Composite Terrane-derived schists, protomylonites and mylonites, terminating 200–400 m above an Alpine Fault Principal Slip Zone (PSZ) with a maximum dip of 62°. The most diagnostic structural features of increasing PSZ proximity were the occurrence of shear bands and reduction in mean quartz grain sizes. A change in composition to greater mica:quartz + feldspar, most markedly below c. 700 m MD, is inferred to result from either heterogeneous sampling or a change in lithology related to alteration. Major oxide variations suggest the fault-proximal Alpine Fault alteration zone, as previously defined in DFDP-1 core, was not sampled.

KW - Alpine fault

KW - New Zealand

KW - scientific drilling

KW - mylonite

KW - cataclasite

U2 - 10.1080/00288306.2017.1375533

DO - 10.1080/00288306.2017.1375533

M3 - Article

VL - 60

SP - 497

EP - 518

JO - New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics

JF - New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics

SN - 0028-8306

IS - 4

ER -