The management of renal calculi has evolved over the last few decades due to technological advances. Treatment options include shock wave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), or retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), with the choice of intervention guided by stone location, size, composition, and anatomic factors , along with the availability of technical expertise and equipment. However there is considerable uncertainty regarding how these interventions compare with each other, a fact underlined by current clinical practice guidelines . The systematic review and meta-analysis by De et al.  in this month's issue of European Urology represents a welcome attempt to clarify some of the uncertainties regarding PCNL and RIRS for the treatment of renal stones.
- Renal Stones