Biological and psychological mediators of the relationships between fat mass, fat-free mass and energy intake

Mark Hopkins (Corresponding Author), Graham Finlayson, Cristiana Duarte, Catherine Gibbons, Alexandra M Johnstone, Stephen Whybrow, Graham W Horgan, John E Blundell, R James Stubbs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background While recent studies indicate that in humans fat-free mass (FFM) is closely associated with energy intake (EI) when in energy balance, associations between fat mass (FM) and EI are inconsistent. Objectives The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the indirect and direct effects of FFM, FM and resting metabolic rate (RMR) on EI in individuals at or close to energy balance. Methods Data for 242 individuals (114 males; 128 females; BMI = 25.7 ± 4.9 kg/m2) were collated from the non-intervention baseline conditions of five studies employing common measures of body composition (air-displacement plethysmography), RMR (indirect calorimetry) and psychometric measures of eating behaviours (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire). Daily EI (weighed dietary records) and energy expenditure (flex heart rate) were measured for 6–7 days. Sub-analyses were conducted in 71 individuals who had additional measures of body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and fasting glucose, insulin and leptin. Results After adjusting for age, sex and study, linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that the effect of FFM on EI was mediated by RMR (P < 0.05). FM also independently predicted EI, with path analysis indicating a positive indirect association (mediated by RMR; P < 0.05), and a stronger direct negative association (P < 0.05). Leptin, insulin and insulin resistance failed to predict EI, but cognitive restraint was a determinant of EI and partially mediated the association between FM and EI (P < 0.05). Conclusions While the association between FFM and EI was mediated by RMR, FM influenced EI via two separate and opposing pathways; an indirect ‘excitatory’ effect (again, mediated by RMR), and a stronger direct ‘inhibitory’ effect. Psychological factors such as cognitive restraint remain robust predictors of EI when considered alongside physiological determinants of EI, and indeed, have the potential to play a mediating role in the overall expression of EI.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-242
Number of pages42
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume43
Early online date13 Mar 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Energy Intake
Fats
Psychology
Basal Metabolism
Leptin
Body Composition
Insulin
Diet Records
Indirect Calorimetry
Plethysmography
Photon Absorptiometry
Feeding Behavior
Psychometrics
Energy Metabolism
Insulin Resistance
Linear Models
Fasting
Eating
Heart Rate
Air

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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Biological and psychological mediators of the relationships between fat mass, fat-free mass and energy intake. / Hopkins, Mark (Corresponding Author); Finlayson, Graham; Duarte, Cristiana; Gibbons, Catherine; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Whybrow, Stephen; Horgan, Graham W; Blundell, John E; Stubbs, R James.

In: International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 43, 2019, p. 233-242.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hopkins, Mark ; Finlayson, Graham ; Duarte, Cristiana ; Gibbons, Catherine ; Johnstone, Alexandra M ; Whybrow, Stephen ; Horgan, Graham W ; Blundell, John E ; Stubbs, R James. / Biological and psychological mediators of the relationships between fat mass, fat-free mass and energy intake. In: International Journal of Obesity. 2019 ; Vol. 43. pp. 233-242.
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title = "Biological and psychological mediators of the relationships between fat mass, fat-free mass and energy intake",
abstract = "Background While recent studies indicate that in humans fat-free mass (FFM) is closely associated with energy intake (EI) when in energy balance, associations between fat mass (FM) and EI are inconsistent. Objectives The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the indirect and direct effects of FFM, FM and resting metabolic rate (RMR) on EI in individuals at or close to energy balance. Methods Data for 242 individuals (114 males; 128 females; BMI = 25.7 ± 4.9 kg/m2) were collated from the non-intervention baseline conditions of five studies employing common measures of body composition (air-displacement plethysmography), RMR (indirect calorimetry) and psychometric measures of eating behaviours (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire). Daily EI (weighed dietary records) and energy expenditure (flex heart rate) were measured for 6–7 days. Sub-analyses were conducted in 71 individuals who had additional measures of body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and fasting glucose, insulin and leptin. Results After adjusting for age, sex and study, linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that the effect of FFM on EI was mediated by RMR (P < 0.05). FM also independently predicted EI, with path analysis indicating a positive indirect association (mediated by RMR; P < 0.05), and a stronger direct negative association (P < 0.05). Leptin, insulin and insulin resistance failed to predict EI, but cognitive restraint was a determinant of EI and partially mediated the association between FM and EI (P < 0.05). Conclusions While the association between FFM and EI was mediated by RMR, FM influenced EI via two separate and opposing pathways; an indirect ‘excitatory’ effect (again, mediated by RMR), and a stronger direct ‘inhibitory’ effect. Psychological factors such as cognitive restraint remain robust predictors of EI when considered alongside physiological determinants of EI, and indeed, have the potential to play a mediating role in the overall expression of EI.",
author = "Mark Hopkins and Graham Finlayson and Cristiana Duarte and Catherine Gibbons and Johnstone, {Alexandra M} and Stephen Whybrow and Horgan, {Graham W} and Blundell, {John E} and Stubbs, {R James}",
note = "Acknowledgements The authors’ responsibilities were as follows: RJS, GWH, AMJ and SW conceived the project; RJS, SW, AMJ and the project team (Leona O’Reilley and Zoe Fuller) conducted the research. CD, GWH, MH and RJS analysed the data and performed the statistical analysis. MH, GF, CG, JB and RJS wrote the initial manuscript, while all authors commented on the manuscript. RJS had primary responsibility for final content. The authors report no personal or financial conflicts of interest. The present study was funded by the Food Standards Agency, UK, and The Scottish Government’s Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division. None of the funding bodies had a role in the design, analysis or writing of this article.",
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T1 - Biological and psychological mediators of the relationships between fat mass, fat-free mass and energy intake

AU - Hopkins, Mark

AU - Finlayson, Graham

AU - Duarte, Cristiana

AU - Gibbons, Catherine

AU - Johnstone, Alexandra M

AU - Whybrow, Stephen

AU - Horgan, Graham W

AU - Blundell, John E

AU - Stubbs, R James

N1 - Acknowledgements The authors’ responsibilities were as follows: RJS, GWH, AMJ and SW conceived the project; RJS, SW, AMJ and the project team (Leona O’Reilley and Zoe Fuller) conducted the research. CD, GWH, MH and RJS analysed the data and performed the statistical analysis. MH, GF, CG, JB and RJS wrote the initial manuscript, while all authors commented on the manuscript. RJS had primary responsibility for final content. The authors report no personal or financial conflicts of interest. The present study was funded by the Food Standards Agency, UK, and The Scottish Government’s Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division. None of the funding bodies had a role in the design, analysis or writing of this article.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Background While recent studies indicate that in humans fat-free mass (FFM) is closely associated with energy intake (EI) when in energy balance, associations between fat mass (FM) and EI are inconsistent. Objectives The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the indirect and direct effects of FFM, FM and resting metabolic rate (RMR) on EI in individuals at or close to energy balance. Methods Data for 242 individuals (114 males; 128 females; BMI = 25.7 ± 4.9 kg/m2) were collated from the non-intervention baseline conditions of five studies employing common measures of body composition (air-displacement plethysmography), RMR (indirect calorimetry) and psychometric measures of eating behaviours (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire). Daily EI (weighed dietary records) and energy expenditure (flex heart rate) were measured for 6–7 days. Sub-analyses were conducted in 71 individuals who had additional measures of body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and fasting glucose, insulin and leptin. Results After adjusting for age, sex and study, linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that the effect of FFM on EI was mediated by RMR (P < 0.05). FM also independently predicted EI, with path analysis indicating a positive indirect association (mediated by RMR; P < 0.05), and a stronger direct negative association (P < 0.05). Leptin, insulin and insulin resistance failed to predict EI, but cognitive restraint was a determinant of EI and partially mediated the association between FM and EI (P < 0.05). Conclusions While the association between FFM and EI was mediated by RMR, FM influenced EI via two separate and opposing pathways; an indirect ‘excitatory’ effect (again, mediated by RMR), and a stronger direct ‘inhibitory’ effect. Psychological factors such as cognitive restraint remain robust predictors of EI when considered alongside physiological determinants of EI, and indeed, have the potential to play a mediating role in the overall expression of EI.

AB - Background While recent studies indicate that in humans fat-free mass (FFM) is closely associated with energy intake (EI) when in energy balance, associations between fat mass (FM) and EI are inconsistent. Objectives The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the indirect and direct effects of FFM, FM and resting metabolic rate (RMR) on EI in individuals at or close to energy balance. Methods Data for 242 individuals (114 males; 128 females; BMI = 25.7 ± 4.9 kg/m2) were collated from the non-intervention baseline conditions of five studies employing common measures of body composition (air-displacement plethysmography), RMR (indirect calorimetry) and psychometric measures of eating behaviours (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire). Daily EI (weighed dietary records) and energy expenditure (flex heart rate) were measured for 6–7 days. Sub-analyses were conducted in 71 individuals who had additional measures of body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and fasting glucose, insulin and leptin. Results After adjusting for age, sex and study, linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that the effect of FFM on EI was mediated by RMR (P < 0.05). FM also independently predicted EI, with path analysis indicating a positive indirect association (mediated by RMR; P < 0.05), and a stronger direct negative association (P < 0.05). Leptin, insulin and insulin resistance failed to predict EI, but cognitive restraint was a determinant of EI and partially mediated the association between FM and EI (P < 0.05). Conclusions While the association between FFM and EI was mediated by RMR, FM influenced EI via two separate and opposing pathways; an indirect ‘excitatory’ effect (again, mediated by RMR), and a stronger direct ‘inhibitory’ effect. Psychological factors such as cognitive restraint remain robust predictors of EI when considered alongside physiological determinants of EI, and indeed, have the potential to play a mediating role in the overall expression of EI.

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