Body weight loss, effective satiation and absence of homeostatic neuropeptide compensation in male Sprague Dawley rats schedule fed a protein crosslinked diet

Nikki Cassie, Richard L. Anderson, Dana Wilson, Anne Pawsey, Julian G. Mercer, Perry Barrett

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Abstract

Food structure contributes to the induction of satiation and the maintenance of satiety following intake of a meal. There is evidence from human studies that protein-crosslinking of a milkprotein based meal may enhance satiety, but the mechanism underpinning this effect is unknown. We investigated whether a rat model would respond in a similar manner and might provide mechanistic insight into enhanced satiety by structural modification of a food source. Rats were schedule fed a modified AIN-93M based diet in a liquid form or protein-crosslinked to produce a soft-solid form. This was compared to a modified AIN-93M solid diet. Average daily caloric intake was in the order solid > liquid > crosslinked. Body composition was unaltered in the solid group, but there was a loss of fat in the liquid group and a loss of lean and fat tissue in the crosslinked group. Compared to rats fed a solid diet, acute responses in circulating GLP-1, leptin and insulin were eliminated or attenuated in rats fed a liquid or crosslinked diet. Quantification of homeostatic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus showed elevated levels of Npy and Agrp in rats fed the liquid diet. Measurement of food intake after a scheduled meal indicated that reduced energy intake of liquid and crosslinked diets is not due to enhancement of satiety. When continuously available ad-libitum, rats fed a liquid diet showed reduced weight gain despite greater 24h caloric intake. During the dark phase, caloric intake was reduced, but compensated for during the light phase. We conclude that structural modification from a liquid to a solidified state is beneficial for satiation, with less of a detrimental effect on metabolic parameters and homeostatic neuropeptides.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)234-246
Number of pages13
JournalAppetite
Volume117
Early online date5 Jul 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2017

Fingerprint

Satiation
Neuropeptides
Sprague Dawley Rats
Weight Loss
Appointments and Schedules
Body Weight
Diet
Energy Intake
Proteins
Meals
Fats
Food
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Leptin
Body Composition
Hypothalamus
Weight Gain
Eating
Maintenance
Insulin

Keywords

  • food reformulation
  • satiety
  • satiation
  • transglutaminase

Cite this

Body weight loss, effective satiation and absence of homeostatic neuropeptide compensation in male Sprague Dawley rats schedule fed a protein crosslinked diet. / Cassie, Nikki; Anderson, Richard L.; Wilson, Dana; Pawsey, Anne; Mercer, Julian G.; Barrett, Perry.

In: Appetite, Vol. 117, 01.10.2017, p. 234-246.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Food structure contributes to the induction of satiation and the maintenance of satiety following intake of a meal. There is evidence from human studies that protein-crosslinking of a milkprotein based meal may enhance satiety, but the mechanism underpinning this effect is unknown. We investigated whether a rat model would respond in a similar manner and might provide mechanistic insight into enhanced satiety by structural modification of a food source. Rats were schedule fed a modified AIN-93M based diet in a liquid form or protein-crosslinked to produce a soft-solid form. This was compared to a modified AIN-93M solid diet. Average daily caloric intake was in the order solid > liquid > crosslinked. Body composition was unaltered in the solid group, but there was a loss of fat in the liquid group and a loss of lean and fat tissue in the crosslinked group. Compared to rats fed a solid diet, acute responses in circulating GLP-1, leptin and insulin were eliminated or attenuated in rats fed a liquid or crosslinked diet. Quantification of homeostatic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus showed elevated levels of Npy and Agrp in rats fed the liquid diet. Measurement of food intake after a scheduled meal indicated that reduced energy intake of liquid and crosslinked diets is not due to enhancement of satiety. When continuously available ad-libitum, rats fed a liquid diet showed reduced weight gain despite greater 24h caloric intake. During the dark phase, caloric intake was reduced, but compensated for during the light phase. We conclude that structural modification from a liquid to a solidified state is beneficial for satiation, with less of a detrimental effect on metabolic parameters and homeostatic neuropeptides.",
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N1 - Acknowledgements This work was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework programme (Full4Health - grant number 266408) and the Scottish Government Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division. We thank Danisco, Kettering, UK, for the gift of emulsifier. We thanks Dr Claus-Dieter Mayer of Biomathematics & Statistics Scotland for help with statistical analysis.

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