Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables

Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

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Abstract

The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.
Original languageEnglish
Article number62
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalFoods
Volume5
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Sep 2016

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dried vegetables
breads
ingredients
oils
vegetables
digestion
broccoli
beets
oxidative stability
oxidation
antioxidants
wheat flour
carrots
lipid peroxidation

Keywords

  • bread
  • vegetables
  • macronutrient oxidation
  • storage
  • digestion

Cite this

@article{9045aaa5b88a413595fc48c307b2116a,
title = "Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient",
abstract = "The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.",
keywords = "bread , vegetables, macronutrient oxidation, storage, digestion",
author = "Viren Ranawana and Fiona Campbell and Charles Bestwick and Phyllis Nicol and Lesley Milne and Garry Duthie and Vassilios Raikos",
note = "Acknowledgments: Funds for the study were provided by the Scottish Government's Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division and conducted as part of the Scottish Government Strategic Research programme (Diet and Health Theme of the Food Land & People Programme). The authors are grateful to Phillip Morrice, Vivian Buchan, and Donna Henderson for helping with the nutritional analysis of the breads. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.",
year = "2016",
month = "9",
day = "8",
doi = "10.3390/foods5030062",
language = "English",
volume = "5",
pages = "1--14",
journal = "Foods",
issn = "2304-8158",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables

T2 - Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

AU - Ranawana, Viren

AU - Campbell, Fiona

AU - Bestwick, Charles

AU - Nicol, Phyllis

AU - Milne, Lesley

AU - Duthie, Garry

AU - Raikos, Vassilios

N1 - Acknowledgments: Funds for the study were provided by the Scottish Government's Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division and conducted as part of the Scottish Government Strategic Research programme (Diet and Health Theme of the Food Land & People Programme). The authors are grateful to Phillip Morrice, Vivian Buchan, and Donna Henderson for helping with the nutritional analysis of the breads. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

PY - 2016/9/8

Y1 - 2016/9/8

N2 - The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

AB - The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

KW - bread

KW - vegetables

KW - macronutrient oxidation

KW - storage

KW - digestion

U2 - 10.3390/foods5030062

DO - 10.3390/foods5030062

M3 - Article

VL - 5

SP - 1

EP - 14

JO - Foods

JF - Foods

SN - 2304-8158

IS - 3

M1 - 62

ER -