This article examines sub‐state nationalist strategies in relation to European integration in the Basque Country, Catalonia, Flanders and Scotland. First, we discuss the impact of European and economic integration on sovereignty and the cost of independence for small nations. Second, we compare the support for the European project in our four territories. We stress that European integration is a divisive issue in British politics but fundamentally consensual in the other cases. Third, we examine the European strategies of sub‐state nationalist parties. We distinguish between two broad strategies, one maximizing regional influence in the EU and the other promoting independence within the EU. Regarding the latter, we focus on the cases of Scotland and Catalonia, where sub‐state nationalist parties currently seek independence.
- sub-state mobilization
- Basque Country