This article examines precontact Yup'ik masks, maskettes, and mask fragments recently recovered from the Nunalleq site (16th-17th century AD) near the village of Quinhagak, Alaska. Remarkable in their number, size, and variety of designs, the Nunalleq masks, which represent spirits, humans, and animals, indicate a very active ceremonial life among the residents of Nunalleq settlement. This paper combines archaeological, ethnographic, and oral history accounts to demonstrate the existence of a rich mask-carving tradition in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta flourishing at least two centuries prior to European contact. The iconography of Nunalleq masks shows interesting regional connections as well as strong continuity between the pre-and postcontact Yup'ik mask making. Mask-making traditions are conservative, but far from frozen, and some fluidity can be observed within the Nunalleq mask assemblage over the course of ca. 150 years of the site's occupation.