Buckwheat, Fava Bean and Hemp Flours Fortified with Anthocyanins and Other Bioactive Phytochemicals as Sustainable Ingredients for Functional Food Development

Madalina Neacsu* (Corresponding Author), James S. Christie, Gary J. Duncan, Nicholas J. Vaughan, Wendy R. Russell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Facing a climate emergency and an increasingly unhealthy population, functional foods should not only address health issues but must be prepared from sustainable ingredients while contributing to our sustainable development goals, such as tackling waste and promoting a healthy environment. High-protein crop flours, i.e., buckwheat, hemp and fava bean, are investigated as potential matrices to be fortified with key bioactive phytochemicals from soft fruits to explore potential waste valorization and to deliver sustainable functional food ingredients. Hemp flour provided the best matrix for anthocyanin fortification, adsorbing of 88.45 ± 0.88% anthocyanins and 69.77 mg/kg of additional phytochemicals. Buckwheat and fava bean absorbed 78.64 ± 3.15% and 50.46 ± 2.94% of anthocyanins 118.22 mg/kg and 103.88 mg/kg of additional phytochemicals, respectively. During the fortification, there was no detectable adsorption of the berry sugars to the flours, and the quantities of free sugars from the flours were also removed. One gram of fortified hemp flour provides the same amount of anthocyanins found in 20 g of fresh bilberries but has substantially less sugar. The optimum conditions for high protein flour fortification with anthocyanins was established and showed that it is a viable way to reduce and valorize potential agricultural waste, contributing to a circular and greener nutrition.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)150-161
Number of pages12
JournalNutraceuticals
Volume2
Issue number3
Early online date14 Jul 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 14 Jul 2022

Keywords

  • buckwheat
  • fava bean
  • hemp
  • anthocyanin
  • flour fortification
  • functional food
  • berries
  • soft fruit
  • agricultural waste
  • bilberry

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