In their review of calcium intake and cardiovascular disease, Chung and colleagues (1) did not perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as their title suggests. They identified only 2 trials reporting the effects of calcium plus vitamin D on cardiovascular events and 3 trials of calcium alone, whereas we have reported data on myocardial infarction or stroke from 13 studies of calcium with or without vitamin D (4 trials of calcium plus vitamin D and 11 trials of calcium monotherapy, with 2 studies comparing both calcium and calcium plus vitamin D with placebo) (2). For 6 trials, we used individual patient data. As in Chung and colleagues' review, cardiovascular event rates did not significantly increase in individual trials in our review but did when data were meta-analyzed (relative risk for myocardial infarction or stroke from calcium with or without vitamin D in 9 trials, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.27]) (2). Another meta-analysis of calcium monotherapy (5 trials involving 6333 participants) reported a relative risk for myocardial infarction of 1.37 (CI, 0.98 to 1.92) (3). Chung and colleagues do not comment on why their findings differ from those published previously.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
Reid, I. R., Avenell, A., Grey, A., & Bolland, M. J. (2017). Letter to the Editor - Calcium Intake and Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166(9), 684-685. https://doi.org/10.7326/L17-0135