Carbohydrates, appetite and feeding behavior in humans

R J Stubbs, N Mazlan, Stephen Whybrow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The view of carbohydrates in relation to obesity has changed over the past few decades from being conducive to overconsumption and weight gain to being protective. This article reviews the mechanisms by which carbohydrate is purported to protect against weight gain. Although carbohydrate is metabolized and stored in the body less efficiently than fat, when de novo lipogenesis is invoked on very high carbohydrate diets, the beneficial effect on energy balance is likely to be minimal when typical high fat Western diets are consumed. However, it has been suggested that high carbohydrate foods may influence energy balance by reducing food intake through greater satiety effects, reducing energy density and displacing fat from the diet-the fat-sugar seesaw effect. To date, there seem to be few differences between sugars and starches on satiety and energy intake, but few studies have examined this. Some reduced-fat, and, therefore, higher carbohydrate, foods are highly energy dense. High carbohydrate foods do not necessarily have a low energy density. Evidence from recent studies suggests that adding carbohydrate, and especially sugar, to the diet neither displaces fat from the diet nor protects against elevated energy intake. Although it is easier to overeat on high fat than low fat foods, simply replacing fat with carbohydrate in the diet may not be as protective against overconsumption as the energy density or fat-sugar seesaw arguments suggest.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2775S-2781S
JournalThe Journal of Nutrition
Volume131
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2001

Fingerprint

Feeding Behavior
Appetite
Fats
Carbohydrates
Diet
Food
Energy Intake
Weight Gain
Lipogenesis
High Fat Diet
Starch
Obesity
Eating

Keywords

  • Appetite
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Energy Intake
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Humans
  • Research
  • Satiation
  • Weight Gain

Cite this

Carbohydrates, appetite and feeding behavior in humans. / Stubbs, R J; Mazlan, N; Whybrow, Stephen.

In: The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 131, No. 10, 10.2001, p. 2775S-2781S.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stubbs, RJ, Mazlan, N & Whybrow, S 2001, 'Carbohydrates, appetite and feeding behavior in humans', The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 10, pp. 2775S-2781S.
Stubbs, R J ; Mazlan, N ; Whybrow, Stephen. / Carbohydrates, appetite and feeding behavior in humans. In: The Journal of Nutrition. 2001 ; Vol. 131, No. 10. pp. 2775S-2781S.
@article{fd518ddef4f7403694a20b4205851deb,
title = "Carbohydrates, appetite and feeding behavior in humans",
abstract = "The view of carbohydrates in relation to obesity has changed over the past few decades from being conducive to overconsumption and weight gain to being protective. This article reviews the mechanisms by which carbohydrate is purported to protect against weight gain. Although carbohydrate is metabolized and stored in the body less efficiently than fat, when de novo lipogenesis is invoked on very high carbohydrate diets, the beneficial effect on energy balance is likely to be minimal when typical high fat Western diets are consumed. However, it has been suggested that high carbohydrate foods may influence energy balance by reducing food intake through greater satiety effects, reducing energy density and displacing fat from the diet-the fat-sugar seesaw effect. To date, there seem to be few differences between sugars and starches on satiety and energy intake, but few studies have examined this. Some reduced-fat, and, therefore, higher carbohydrate, foods are highly energy dense. High carbohydrate foods do not necessarily have a low energy density. Evidence from recent studies suggests that adding carbohydrate, and especially sugar, to the diet neither displaces fat from the diet nor protects against elevated energy intake. Although it is easier to overeat on high fat than low fat foods, simply replacing fat with carbohydrate in the diet may not be as protective against overconsumption as the energy density or fat-sugar seesaw arguments suggest.",
keywords = "Appetite, Dietary Carbohydrates, Energy Intake, Feeding Behavior, Humans, Research, Satiation, Weight Gain",
author = "Stubbs, {R J} and N Mazlan and Stephen Whybrow",
year = "2001",
month = "10",
language = "English",
volume = "131",
pages = "2775S--2781S",
journal = "The Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0022-3166",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Carbohydrates, appetite and feeding behavior in humans

AU - Stubbs, R J

AU - Mazlan, N

AU - Whybrow, Stephen

PY - 2001/10

Y1 - 2001/10

N2 - The view of carbohydrates in relation to obesity has changed over the past few decades from being conducive to overconsumption and weight gain to being protective. This article reviews the mechanisms by which carbohydrate is purported to protect against weight gain. Although carbohydrate is metabolized and stored in the body less efficiently than fat, when de novo lipogenesis is invoked on very high carbohydrate diets, the beneficial effect on energy balance is likely to be minimal when typical high fat Western diets are consumed. However, it has been suggested that high carbohydrate foods may influence energy balance by reducing food intake through greater satiety effects, reducing energy density and displacing fat from the diet-the fat-sugar seesaw effect. To date, there seem to be few differences between sugars and starches on satiety and energy intake, but few studies have examined this. Some reduced-fat, and, therefore, higher carbohydrate, foods are highly energy dense. High carbohydrate foods do not necessarily have a low energy density. Evidence from recent studies suggests that adding carbohydrate, and especially sugar, to the diet neither displaces fat from the diet nor protects against elevated energy intake. Although it is easier to overeat on high fat than low fat foods, simply replacing fat with carbohydrate in the diet may not be as protective against overconsumption as the energy density or fat-sugar seesaw arguments suggest.

AB - The view of carbohydrates in relation to obesity has changed over the past few decades from being conducive to overconsumption and weight gain to being protective. This article reviews the mechanisms by which carbohydrate is purported to protect against weight gain. Although carbohydrate is metabolized and stored in the body less efficiently than fat, when de novo lipogenesis is invoked on very high carbohydrate diets, the beneficial effect on energy balance is likely to be minimal when typical high fat Western diets are consumed. However, it has been suggested that high carbohydrate foods may influence energy balance by reducing food intake through greater satiety effects, reducing energy density and displacing fat from the diet-the fat-sugar seesaw effect. To date, there seem to be few differences between sugars and starches on satiety and energy intake, but few studies have examined this. Some reduced-fat, and, therefore, higher carbohydrate, foods are highly energy dense. High carbohydrate foods do not necessarily have a low energy density. Evidence from recent studies suggests that adding carbohydrate, and especially sugar, to the diet neither displaces fat from the diet nor protects against elevated energy intake. Although it is easier to overeat on high fat than low fat foods, simply replacing fat with carbohydrate in the diet may not be as protective against overconsumption as the energy density or fat-sugar seesaw arguments suggest.

KW - Appetite

KW - Dietary Carbohydrates

KW - Energy Intake

KW - Feeding Behavior

KW - Humans

KW - Research

KW - Satiation

KW - Weight Gain

M3 - Article

VL - 131

SP - 2775S-2781S

JO - The Journal of Nutrition

JF - The Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0022-3166

IS - 10

ER -