Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain: results from a cross-sectional general population study

Nicola J Goodson, Blair H Smith, Lynne J Hocking, Mark M McGilchrist, Anna F Dominiczak, Andrew Morris, David J. Porteous, Andreas Goebel, Generation Scotland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To explore whether chronic pain is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and identify whether increased distribution or intensity of pain is associated with cardiovascular risk, participants in Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health study completed pain questionnaires recording the following: presence of chronic pain, distribution of pain, and intensity of chronic pain. Blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, smoking history, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were recorded; Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores were calculated and a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome derived. Associations between chronic pain and cardiovascular risk were explored. Of 13,328 participants, 1100 (8.3%) had high CHD risk. Chronic pain was reported by 5209 (39%), 1294 (9.7%) reported widespread chronic pain, and 707 (5.3%) reported high-intensity chronic pain. In age- and gender-adjusted analyses, chronic pain was associated with elevated CHD risk scores (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.23) and the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.24-1.62). Multivariate analyses identified dyslipidaemia, age, gender, smoking, obesity, and high waist-hip ratio as independently associated with chronic pain. Within the chronic pain subgroup, widespread pain did not confer any additional cardiovascular disease risk. However, cardiovascular disease risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in those reporting high-intensity chronic pain. This large population-based study has demonstrated that chronic pain, and in particular high-intensity chronic pain, is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. The 10-year CHD risk score and metabolic syndrome correlate well with increased pain intensity, but not with widespread pain.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1595-1602
Number of pages8
JournalPain
Volume154
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2013

Fingerprint

Chronic Pain
Population
Pain
Coronary Disease
Waist-Hip Ratio
Cardiovascular Diseases
Smoking
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Family Health
Scotland
Dyslipidemias
Blood Glucose
Body Mass Index
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity
History
Blood Pressure
Lipids

Keywords

  • cardiovascular risk
  • chronic pain
  • metabolic syndrome
  • pain intensity

Cite this

Goodson, N. J., Smith, B. H., Hocking, L. J., McGilchrist, M. M., Dominiczak, A. F., Morris, A., ... Generation Scotland (2013). Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain: results from a cross-sectional general population study. Pain, 154(9), 1595-1602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2013.04.043

Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain : results from a cross-sectional general population study. / Goodson, Nicola J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; McGilchrist, Mark M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Morris, Andrew; Porteous, David J. ; Goebel, Andreas; Generation Scotland.

In: Pain, Vol. 154, No. 9, 09.2013, p. 1595-1602.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Goodson, NJ, Smith, BH, Hocking, LJ, McGilchrist, MM, Dominiczak, AF, Morris, A, Porteous, DJ, Goebel, A & Generation Scotland 2013, 'Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain: results from a cross-sectional general population study', Pain, vol. 154, no. 9, pp. 1595-1602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2013.04.043
Goodson, Nicola J ; Smith, Blair H ; Hocking, Lynne J ; McGilchrist, Mark M ; Dominiczak, Anna F ; Morris, Andrew ; Porteous, David J. ; Goebel, Andreas ; Generation Scotland. / Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain : results from a cross-sectional general population study. In: Pain. 2013 ; Vol. 154, No. 9. pp. 1595-1602.
@article{3090e5437ae94af09cfe5700bee8d29b,
title = "Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain: results from a cross-sectional general population study",
abstract = "To explore whether chronic pain is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and identify whether increased distribution or intensity of pain is associated with cardiovascular risk, participants in Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health study completed pain questionnaires recording the following: presence of chronic pain, distribution of pain, and intensity of chronic pain. Blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, smoking history, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were recorded; Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores were calculated and a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome derived. Associations between chronic pain and cardiovascular risk were explored. Of 13,328 participants, 1100 (8.3{\%}) had high CHD risk. Chronic pain was reported by 5209 (39{\%}), 1294 (9.7{\%}) reported widespread chronic pain, and 707 (5.3{\%}) reported high-intensity chronic pain. In age- and gender-adjusted analyses, chronic pain was associated with elevated CHD risk scores (odds ratio 1.11, 95{\%} confidence interval 1.01-1.23) and the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.42, 95{\%} confidence interval 1.24-1.62). Multivariate analyses identified dyslipidaemia, age, gender, smoking, obesity, and high waist-hip ratio as independently associated with chronic pain. Within the chronic pain subgroup, widespread pain did not confer any additional cardiovascular disease risk. However, cardiovascular disease risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in those reporting high-intensity chronic pain. This large population-based study has demonstrated that chronic pain, and in particular high-intensity chronic pain, is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. The 10-year CHD risk score and metabolic syndrome correlate well with increased pain intensity, but not with widespread pain.",
keywords = "cardiovascular risk, chronic pain, metabolic syndrome, pain intensity",
author = "Goodson, {Nicola J} and Smith, {Blair H} and Hocking, {Lynne J} and McGilchrist, {Mark M} and Dominiczak, {Anna F} and Andrew Morris and Porteous, {David J.} and Andreas Goebel and {Generation Scotland}",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
year = "2013",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1016/j.pain.2013.04.043",
language = "English",
volume = "154",
pages = "1595--1602",
journal = "Pain",
issn = "0304-3959",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people reporting chronic pain

T2 - results from a cross-sectional general population study

AU - Goodson, Nicola J

AU - Smith, Blair H

AU - Hocking, Lynne J

AU - McGilchrist, Mark M

AU - Dominiczak, Anna F

AU - Morris, Andrew

AU - Porteous, David J.

AU - Goebel, Andreas

AU - Generation Scotland

N1 - Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PY - 2013/9

Y1 - 2013/9

N2 - To explore whether chronic pain is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and identify whether increased distribution or intensity of pain is associated with cardiovascular risk, participants in Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health study completed pain questionnaires recording the following: presence of chronic pain, distribution of pain, and intensity of chronic pain. Blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, smoking history, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were recorded; Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores were calculated and a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome derived. Associations between chronic pain and cardiovascular risk were explored. Of 13,328 participants, 1100 (8.3%) had high CHD risk. Chronic pain was reported by 5209 (39%), 1294 (9.7%) reported widespread chronic pain, and 707 (5.3%) reported high-intensity chronic pain. In age- and gender-adjusted analyses, chronic pain was associated with elevated CHD risk scores (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.23) and the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.24-1.62). Multivariate analyses identified dyslipidaemia, age, gender, smoking, obesity, and high waist-hip ratio as independently associated with chronic pain. Within the chronic pain subgroup, widespread pain did not confer any additional cardiovascular disease risk. However, cardiovascular disease risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in those reporting high-intensity chronic pain. This large population-based study has demonstrated that chronic pain, and in particular high-intensity chronic pain, is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. The 10-year CHD risk score and metabolic syndrome correlate well with increased pain intensity, but not with widespread pain.

AB - To explore whether chronic pain is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and identify whether increased distribution or intensity of pain is associated with cardiovascular risk, participants in Generation Scotland: The Scottish Family Health study completed pain questionnaires recording the following: presence of chronic pain, distribution of pain, and intensity of chronic pain. Blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, smoking history, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were recorded; Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores were calculated and a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome derived. Associations between chronic pain and cardiovascular risk were explored. Of 13,328 participants, 1100 (8.3%) had high CHD risk. Chronic pain was reported by 5209 (39%), 1294 (9.7%) reported widespread chronic pain, and 707 (5.3%) reported high-intensity chronic pain. In age- and gender-adjusted analyses, chronic pain was associated with elevated CHD risk scores (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.23) and the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.24-1.62). Multivariate analyses identified dyslipidaemia, age, gender, smoking, obesity, and high waist-hip ratio as independently associated with chronic pain. Within the chronic pain subgroup, widespread pain did not confer any additional cardiovascular disease risk. However, cardiovascular disease risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in those reporting high-intensity chronic pain. This large population-based study has demonstrated that chronic pain, and in particular high-intensity chronic pain, is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. The 10-year CHD risk score and metabolic syndrome correlate well with increased pain intensity, but not with widespread pain.

KW - cardiovascular risk

KW - chronic pain

KW - metabolic syndrome

KW - pain intensity

U2 - 10.1016/j.pain.2013.04.043

DO - 10.1016/j.pain.2013.04.043

M3 - Article

C2 - 23707277

VL - 154

SP - 1595

EP - 1602

JO - Pain

JF - Pain

SN - 0304-3959

IS - 9

ER -