Rechargeable aluminum batteries (RABs) are amongst the most promising post-lithium energy storage systems (ESS) with a substantially higher specific volumetric capacity (8046 mA h cm−3), higher safety and lower cost. The development of such efficient and low cost ESSs is essential in order to meet the future energy storage demands of modern society. In recent years, a number of research articles have been reported on the evolution of cathode materials for RABs, which makes a critical review timely in order to provide inspiration for future research. This article highlights the cathode materials developed specifically for RABs, in detail, the development of carbon-based cathode materials, and then that of transition metal oxide (TMO), sulfide and chloride based cathode materials and then finally, a few other cathode materials are also discussed. Accordingly, future perspectives and opportunities are highlighted.