Cellular responses of Candida albicans to phagocytosis and the extracellular activities of neutrophils are critical to counteract carbohydrate starvation, oxidative and nitrosative stress

Pedro Miramón, Christine Dunker, Hanna Windecker, Iryna M Bohovych, Alistair J P Brown, Oliver Kurzai, Bernhard Hube

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Abstract

Neutrophils are key players during Candida albicans infection. However, the relative contributions of neutrophil activities to fungal clearance and the relative importance of the fungal responses that counteract these activities remain unclear. We studied the contributions of the intra- and extracellular antifungal activities of human neutrophils using diagnostic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-marked C. albicans strains. We found that a carbohydrate starvation response, as indicated by up-regulation of glyoxylate cycle genes, was only induced upon phagocytosis of the fungus. Similarly, the nitrosative stress response was only observed in internalised fungal cells. In contrast, the response to oxidative stress was observed in both phagocytosed and non-phagocytosed fungal cells, indicating that oxidative stress is imposed both intra- and extracellularly. We assessed the contributions of carbohydrate starvation, oxidative and nitrosative stress as antifungal activities by analysing the resistance to neutrophil killing of C. albicans mutants lacking key glyoxylate cycle, oxidative and nitrosative stress genes. We found that the glyoxylate cycle plays a crucial role in fungal resistance against neutrophils. The inability to respond to oxidative stress (in cells lacking superoxide dismutase 5 or glutathione reductase 2) renders C. albicans susceptible to neutrophil killing, due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also show that neutrophil-derived nitric oxide is crucial for the killing of C. albicans: a yhb1¿/¿ mutant, unable to detoxify NO•, was more susceptible to neutrophils, and this phenotype was rescued by the nitric oxide scavenger carboxy-PTIO. The stress responses of C. albicans to neutrophils are partially regulated via the stress regulator Hog1 since a hog1¿/¿ mutant was clearly less resistant to neutrophils and unable to respond properly to neutrophil-derived attack. Our data indicate that an appropriate fungal response to all three antifungal activities, carbohydrate starvation, nitrosative stress and oxidative stress, is essential for full wild type resistance to neutrophils.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere52850
Number of pages14
JournalPloS ONE
Volume7
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Dec 2012

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Oxidative stress
Candida
Starvation
phagocytosis
Candida albicans
Phagocytosis
starvation
neutrophils
Oxidative Stress
Neutrophils
Carbohydrates
carbohydrates
Nitric Oxide
Genes
glyoxylate cycle
Glutathione Reductase
oxidative stress
Protein C
Green Fluorescent Proteins
Fungi

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Cellular responses of Candida albicans to phagocytosis and the extracellular activities of neutrophils are critical to counteract carbohydrate starvation, oxidative and nitrosative stress. / Miramón, Pedro; Dunker, Christine; Windecker, Hanna; Bohovych, Iryna M; Brown, Alistair J P; Kurzai, Oliver; Hube, Bernhard.

In: PloS ONE, Vol. 7, No. 12, e52850, 21.12.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Miramón, Pedro ; Dunker, Christine ; Windecker, Hanna ; Bohovych, Iryna M ; Brown, Alistair J P ; Kurzai, Oliver ; Hube, Bernhard. / Cellular responses of Candida albicans to phagocytosis and the extracellular activities of neutrophils are critical to counteract carbohydrate starvation, oxidative and nitrosative stress. In: PloS ONE. 2012 ; Vol. 7, No. 12.
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abstract = "Neutrophils are key players during Candida albicans infection. However, the relative contributions of neutrophil activities to fungal clearance and the relative importance of the fungal responses that counteract these activities remain unclear. We studied the contributions of the intra- and extracellular antifungal activities of human neutrophils using diagnostic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-marked C. albicans strains. We found that a carbohydrate starvation response, as indicated by up-regulation of glyoxylate cycle genes, was only induced upon phagocytosis of the fungus. Similarly, the nitrosative stress response was only observed in internalised fungal cells. In contrast, the response to oxidative stress was observed in both phagocytosed and non-phagocytosed fungal cells, indicating that oxidative stress is imposed both intra- and extracellularly. We assessed the contributions of carbohydrate starvation, oxidative and nitrosative stress as antifungal activities by analysing the resistance to neutrophil killing of C. albicans mutants lacking key glyoxylate cycle, oxidative and nitrosative stress genes. We found that the glyoxylate cycle plays a crucial role in fungal resistance against neutrophils. The inability to respond to oxidative stress (in cells lacking superoxide dismutase 5 or glutathione reductase 2) renders C. albicans susceptible to neutrophil killing, due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also show that neutrophil-derived nitric oxide is crucial for the killing of C. albicans: a yhb1¿/¿ mutant, unable to detoxify NO•, was more susceptible to neutrophils, and this phenotype was rescued by the nitric oxide scavenger carboxy-PTIO. The stress responses of C. albicans to neutrophils are partially regulated via the stress regulator Hog1 since a hog1¿/¿ mutant was clearly less resistant to neutrophils and unable to respond properly to neutrophil-derived attack. Our data indicate that an appropriate fungal response to all three antifungal activities, carbohydrate starvation, nitrosative stress and oxidative stress, is essential for full wild type resistance to neutrophils.",
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note = "Acknowledgments We thank Alexander Johnson (yhb1D/D), Karl Kuchler (sodD/D mutants), Janet Quinn (hog1D/D, hog1/cap1D/D, trx1D/D) and Peter Staib (ssu1D/D) for providing mutant strains. We acknowledge helpful discussions with our colleagues from the Microbial Pathogenicity Mechanisms Department, Fungal Septomics and the Microbial Biochemistry and Physiology Research Group at the Hans Kno¨ll Institute (HKI), specially Ilse D. Jacobsen, Duncan Wilson, Sascha Brunke, Lydia Kasper, Franziska Gerwien, Sea´na Duggan, Katrin Haupt, Kerstin Hu¨nniger, and Matthias Brock, as well as from our partners in the FINSysB Network. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: PM HW IMB AJPB OK BH. Performed the experiments: PM CD HW. Analyzed the data: PM HW IMB AJPB OK BH. Wrote the paper: PM HW OK AJPB BH.",
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AU - Bohovych, Iryna M

AU - Brown, Alistair J P

AU - Kurzai, Oliver

AU - Hube, Bernhard

N1 - Acknowledgments We thank Alexander Johnson (yhb1D/D), Karl Kuchler (sodD/D mutants), Janet Quinn (hog1D/D, hog1/cap1D/D, trx1D/D) and Peter Staib (ssu1D/D) for providing mutant strains. We acknowledge helpful discussions with our colleagues from the Microbial Pathogenicity Mechanisms Department, Fungal Septomics and the Microbial Biochemistry and Physiology Research Group at the Hans Kno¨ll Institute (HKI), specially Ilse D. Jacobsen, Duncan Wilson, Sascha Brunke, Lydia Kasper, Franziska Gerwien, Sea´na Duggan, Katrin Haupt, Kerstin Hu¨nniger, and Matthias Brock, as well as from our partners in the FINSysB Network. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: PM HW IMB AJPB OK BH. Performed the experiments: PM CD HW. Analyzed the data: PM HW IMB AJPB OK BH. Wrote the paper: PM HW OK AJPB BH.

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N2 - Neutrophils are key players during Candida albicans infection. However, the relative contributions of neutrophil activities to fungal clearance and the relative importance of the fungal responses that counteract these activities remain unclear. We studied the contributions of the intra- and extracellular antifungal activities of human neutrophils using diagnostic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-marked C. albicans strains. We found that a carbohydrate starvation response, as indicated by up-regulation of glyoxylate cycle genes, was only induced upon phagocytosis of the fungus. Similarly, the nitrosative stress response was only observed in internalised fungal cells. In contrast, the response to oxidative stress was observed in both phagocytosed and non-phagocytosed fungal cells, indicating that oxidative stress is imposed both intra- and extracellularly. We assessed the contributions of carbohydrate starvation, oxidative and nitrosative stress as antifungal activities by analysing the resistance to neutrophil killing of C. albicans mutants lacking key glyoxylate cycle, oxidative and nitrosative stress genes. We found that the glyoxylate cycle plays a crucial role in fungal resistance against neutrophils. The inability to respond to oxidative stress (in cells lacking superoxide dismutase 5 or glutathione reductase 2) renders C. albicans susceptible to neutrophil killing, due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also show that neutrophil-derived nitric oxide is crucial for the killing of C. albicans: a yhb1¿/¿ mutant, unable to detoxify NO•, was more susceptible to neutrophils, and this phenotype was rescued by the nitric oxide scavenger carboxy-PTIO. The stress responses of C. albicans to neutrophils are partially regulated via the stress regulator Hog1 since a hog1¿/¿ mutant was clearly less resistant to neutrophils and unable to respond properly to neutrophil-derived attack. Our data indicate that an appropriate fungal response to all three antifungal activities, carbohydrate starvation, nitrosative stress and oxidative stress, is essential for full wild type resistance to neutrophils.

AB - Neutrophils are key players during Candida albicans infection. However, the relative contributions of neutrophil activities to fungal clearance and the relative importance of the fungal responses that counteract these activities remain unclear. We studied the contributions of the intra- and extracellular antifungal activities of human neutrophils using diagnostic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-marked C. albicans strains. We found that a carbohydrate starvation response, as indicated by up-regulation of glyoxylate cycle genes, was only induced upon phagocytosis of the fungus. Similarly, the nitrosative stress response was only observed in internalised fungal cells. In contrast, the response to oxidative stress was observed in both phagocytosed and non-phagocytosed fungal cells, indicating that oxidative stress is imposed both intra- and extracellularly. We assessed the contributions of carbohydrate starvation, oxidative and nitrosative stress as antifungal activities by analysing the resistance to neutrophil killing of C. albicans mutants lacking key glyoxylate cycle, oxidative and nitrosative stress genes. We found that the glyoxylate cycle plays a crucial role in fungal resistance against neutrophils. The inability to respond to oxidative stress (in cells lacking superoxide dismutase 5 or glutathione reductase 2) renders C. albicans susceptible to neutrophil killing, due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also show that neutrophil-derived nitric oxide is crucial for the killing of C. albicans: a yhb1¿/¿ mutant, unable to detoxify NO•, was more susceptible to neutrophils, and this phenotype was rescued by the nitric oxide scavenger carboxy-PTIO. The stress responses of C. albicans to neutrophils are partially regulated via the stress regulator Hog1 since a hog1¿/¿ mutant was clearly less resistant to neutrophils and unable to respond properly to neutrophil-derived attack. Our data indicate that an appropriate fungal response to all three antifungal activities, carbohydrate starvation, nitrosative stress and oxidative stress, is essential for full wild type resistance to neutrophils.

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