Changes in physical activity during the retirement transition

a series of novel n-of-1 natural experiments

Suzanne McDonald, Rute Vieira, Alan Godfrey, Nicola O'Brien, Martin White, Falko F Sniehotta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Existing evidence about the impact of retirement on physical activity (PA) has primarily focused on the average change in PA level after retirement in group-based studies. It is unclear whether findings regarding the direction of PA change after retirement from group-based studies apply to individuals. This study aimed to explore changes in PA, PA determinants and their inter-relationships during the retirement transition at the individual level.

METHODS: A series of n-of-1 natural experiments were conducted with seven individuals who were aged 55-76 years and approaching retirement. PA was measured by tri-axial accelerometry. Twice-daily self-report and ecological momentary assessments of evidence- and theory-based determinants of PA (e.g. sleep length/quality, happiness, tiredness, stress, time pressure, pain, intention, perceived behavioural control, priority, goal conflict and goal facilitation) were collected via a questionnaire for a period of between 3 and 7 months, which included time before and after the participant's retirement date. A personalised PA determinant was also identified by each participant and measured daily for the duration of the study. Dynamic regression models for discrete time binary data were used to analyse data for each individual participant.

RESULTS: Two participants showed a statistically significant increase in the probability of engaging in PA bouts after retirement and two participants showed a significant time trend for a decrease and increase in PA bouts over time during the pre- to post-retirement period, respectively. There was no statistically significant change in PA after retirement for the remaining participants. Most of the daily questionnaire variables were significantly associated with PA for one or more participants but there were no consistent pattern of PA predictors across participants. For some participants, the relationship between questionnaire variables and PA changed from pre- to post-retirement.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study demonstrate the impact of retirement on individual PA trajectories. Using n-of-1 methods can provide information about unique patterns and determinants of individual behaviour over time, which has been obscured in previous research. N-of-1 methods can be used as a tool to inform personalised PA interventions for individuals within the retirement transition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number167
JournalThe International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Dec 2017

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Retirement
Accelerometry
Happiness
Self Report
Sleep

Keywords

  • Accelerometry
  • Aged
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Health Behavior
  • Humans
  • Intention
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retirement
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Cite this

Changes in physical activity during the retirement transition : a series of novel n-of-1 natural experiments. / McDonald, Suzanne; Vieira, Rute; Godfrey, Alan; O'Brien, Nicola; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F.

In: The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 14, 167, 08.12.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Changes in physical activity during the retirement transition: a series of novel n-of-1 natural experiments",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Existing evidence about the impact of retirement on physical activity (PA) has primarily focused on the average change in PA level after retirement in group-based studies. It is unclear whether findings regarding the direction of PA change after retirement from group-based studies apply to individuals. This study aimed to explore changes in PA, PA determinants and their inter-relationships during the retirement transition at the individual level.METHODS: A series of n-of-1 natural experiments were conducted with seven individuals who were aged 55-76 years and approaching retirement. PA was measured by tri-axial accelerometry. Twice-daily self-report and ecological momentary assessments of evidence- and theory-based determinants of PA (e.g. sleep length/quality, happiness, tiredness, stress, time pressure, pain, intention, perceived behavioural control, priority, goal conflict and goal facilitation) were collected via a questionnaire for a period of between 3 and 7 months, which included time before and after the participant's retirement date. A personalised PA determinant was also identified by each participant and measured daily for the duration of the study. Dynamic regression models for discrete time binary data were used to analyse data for each individual participant.RESULTS: Two participants showed a statistically significant increase in the probability of engaging in PA bouts after retirement and two participants showed a significant time trend for a decrease and increase in PA bouts over time during the pre- to post-retirement period, respectively. There was no statistically significant change in PA after retirement for the remaining participants. Most of the daily questionnaire variables were significantly associated with PA for one or more participants but there were no consistent pattern of PA predictors across participants. For some participants, the relationship between questionnaire variables and PA changed from pre- to post-retirement.CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study demonstrate the impact of retirement on individual PA trajectories. Using n-of-1 methods can provide information about unique patterns and determinants of individual behaviour over time, which has been obscured in previous research. N-of-1 methods can be used as a tool to inform personalised PA interventions for individuals within the retirement transition.",
keywords = "Accelerometry, Aged, Exercise, Female, Health Behavior, Humans, Intention, Male, Middle Aged, Retirement, Socioeconomic Factors, Surveys and Questionnaires, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't",
author = "Suzanne McDonald and Rute Vieira and Alan Godfrey and Nicola O'Brien and Martin White and Sniehotta, {Falko F}",
note = "This work was part of the LiveWell programme. LiveWell was supported by the Lifelong Health and Wellbeing initiative (LLHW), under grant number G0900686. The LLHW initiative is a funding collaboration between the UK Research Councils and Health Departments. The funding partners are: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Economic and Social Research Council, Medical Research Council, Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates, National Institute for Health Research/The Department of Health, The Health and Social Care Research & Development of the Public Health Agency (Northern Ireland), and Wales Office of Research and Development for Health and Social Care, Welsh Assembly Government.",
year = "2017",
month = "12",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1186/s12966-017-0623-7",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
journal = "The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity",
issn = "1479-5868",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

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T2 - a series of novel n-of-1 natural experiments

AU - McDonald, Suzanne

AU - Vieira, Rute

AU - Godfrey, Alan

AU - O'Brien, Nicola

AU - White, Martin

AU - Sniehotta, Falko F

N1 - This work was part of the LiveWell programme. LiveWell was supported by the Lifelong Health and Wellbeing initiative (LLHW), under grant number G0900686. The LLHW initiative is a funding collaboration between the UK Research Councils and Health Departments. The funding partners are: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Economic and Social Research Council, Medical Research Council, Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates, National Institute for Health Research/The Department of Health, The Health and Social Care Research & Development of the Public Health Agency (Northern Ireland), and Wales Office of Research and Development for Health and Social Care, Welsh Assembly Government.

PY - 2017/12/8

Y1 - 2017/12/8

N2 - BACKGROUND: Existing evidence about the impact of retirement on physical activity (PA) has primarily focused on the average change in PA level after retirement in group-based studies. It is unclear whether findings regarding the direction of PA change after retirement from group-based studies apply to individuals. This study aimed to explore changes in PA, PA determinants and their inter-relationships during the retirement transition at the individual level.METHODS: A series of n-of-1 natural experiments were conducted with seven individuals who were aged 55-76 years and approaching retirement. PA was measured by tri-axial accelerometry. Twice-daily self-report and ecological momentary assessments of evidence- and theory-based determinants of PA (e.g. sleep length/quality, happiness, tiredness, stress, time pressure, pain, intention, perceived behavioural control, priority, goal conflict and goal facilitation) were collected via a questionnaire for a period of between 3 and 7 months, which included time before and after the participant's retirement date. A personalised PA determinant was also identified by each participant and measured daily for the duration of the study. Dynamic regression models for discrete time binary data were used to analyse data for each individual participant.RESULTS: Two participants showed a statistically significant increase in the probability of engaging in PA bouts after retirement and two participants showed a significant time trend for a decrease and increase in PA bouts over time during the pre- to post-retirement period, respectively. There was no statistically significant change in PA after retirement for the remaining participants. Most of the daily questionnaire variables were significantly associated with PA for one or more participants but there were no consistent pattern of PA predictors across participants. For some participants, the relationship between questionnaire variables and PA changed from pre- to post-retirement.CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study demonstrate the impact of retirement on individual PA trajectories. Using n-of-1 methods can provide information about unique patterns and determinants of individual behaviour over time, which has been obscured in previous research. N-of-1 methods can be used as a tool to inform personalised PA interventions for individuals within the retirement transition.

AB - BACKGROUND: Existing evidence about the impact of retirement on physical activity (PA) has primarily focused on the average change in PA level after retirement in group-based studies. It is unclear whether findings regarding the direction of PA change after retirement from group-based studies apply to individuals. This study aimed to explore changes in PA, PA determinants and their inter-relationships during the retirement transition at the individual level.METHODS: A series of n-of-1 natural experiments were conducted with seven individuals who were aged 55-76 years and approaching retirement. PA was measured by tri-axial accelerometry. Twice-daily self-report and ecological momentary assessments of evidence- and theory-based determinants of PA (e.g. sleep length/quality, happiness, tiredness, stress, time pressure, pain, intention, perceived behavioural control, priority, goal conflict and goal facilitation) were collected via a questionnaire for a period of between 3 and 7 months, which included time before and after the participant's retirement date. A personalised PA determinant was also identified by each participant and measured daily for the duration of the study. Dynamic regression models for discrete time binary data were used to analyse data for each individual participant.RESULTS: Two participants showed a statistically significant increase in the probability of engaging in PA bouts after retirement and two participants showed a significant time trend for a decrease and increase in PA bouts over time during the pre- to post-retirement period, respectively. There was no statistically significant change in PA after retirement for the remaining participants. Most of the daily questionnaire variables were significantly associated with PA for one or more participants but there were no consistent pattern of PA predictors across participants. For some participants, the relationship between questionnaire variables and PA changed from pre- to post-retirement.CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study demonstrate the impact of retirement on individual PA trajectories. Using n-of-1 methods can provide information about unique patterns and determinants of individual behaviour over time, which has been obscured in previous research. N-of-1 methods can be used as a tool to inform personalised PA interventions for individuals within the retirement transition.

KW - Accelerometry

KW - Aged

KW - Exercise

KW - Female

KW - Health Behavior

KW - Humans

KW - Intention

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Retirement

KW - Socioeconomic Factors

KW - Surveys and Questionnaires

KW - Journal Article

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

U2 - 10.1186/s12966-017-0623-7

DO - 10.1186/s12966-017-0623-7

M3 - Article

VL - 14

JO - The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity

JF - The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity

SN - 1479-5868

M1 - 167

ER -