Characterization of phases formed in the iron carbide process by X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy analyses

E Park, J Q Zhang, S Thomson, O Ostrovski, R Howe

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77 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Iron carbide was prepared by iron ore reduction and iron cementation using Ar-H-2-CH4 gas mixture with and without sulfur. Phases formed in the reduction/cementation process were examined by Xray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer, and Raman spectroscopy. The sample surface was also analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and Mossbauer analyses showed that iron oxide was first reduced to metallic iron, and then, metallic iron was carburized to cementite. Addition of a small amount of H2S to the reaction gas retarded the cementite formation but made the cementite more stable. XPS analysis showed that the surface of samples converted to iron carbide using sulfur-containing gas consisted of mainly Fe3C and a small amount of graphitic carbon. Raman spectra of a sample produced in the iron carbide process showed the G and D bands, which are characteristic for carbon-carbon bonds. The intensity ratio of G/D bands depended on the sulfur content in the reducing/carburizing gas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)839-845
Number of pages7
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions. B, Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Volume32
Publication statusPublished - 2001

Keywords

  • CARBON
  • FE3C
  • SEGREGATION
  • CEMENTITE
  • GRAPHITE
  • SPECTRA
  • SURFACE
  • FILMS

Cite this

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title = "Characterization of phases formed in the iron carbide process by X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy analyses",
abstract = "Iron carbide was prepared by iron ore reduction and iron cementation using Ar-H-2-CH4 gas mixture with and without sulfur. Phases formed in the reduction/cementation process were examined by Xray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer, and Raman spectroscopy. The sample surface was also analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and Mossbauer analyses showed that iron oxide was first reduced to metallic iron, and then, metallic iron was carburized to cementite. Addition of a small amount of H2S to the reaction gas retarded the cementite formation but made the cementite more stable. XPS analysis showed that the surface of samples converted to iron carbide using sulfur-containing gas consisted of mainly Fe3C and a small amount of graphitic carbon. Raman spectra of a sample produced in the iron carbide process showed the G and D bands, which are characteristic for carbon-carbon bonds. The intensity ratio of G/D bands depended on the sulfur content in the reducing/carburizing gas.",
keywords = "CARBON, FE3C, SEGREGATION, CEMENTITE, GRAPHITE, SPECTRA, SURFACE, FILMS",
author = "E Park and Zhang, {J Q} and S Thomson and O Ostrovski and R Howe",
year = "2001",
language = "English",
volume = "32",
pages = "839--845",
journal = "Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. B, Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science",
issn = "1073-5615",
publisher = "Springer International Publishing AG",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of phases formed in the iron carbide process by X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy analyses

AU - Park, E

AU - Zhang, J Q

AU - Thomson, S

AU - Ostrovski, O

AU - Howe, R

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Iron carbide was prepared by iron ore reduction and iron cementation using Ar-H-2-CH4 gas mixture with and without sulfur. Phases formed in the reduction/cementation process were examined by Xray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer, and Raman spectroscopy. The sample surface was also analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and Mossbauer analyses showed that iron oxide was first reduced to metallic iron, and then, metallic iron was carburized to cementite. Addition of a small amount of H2S to the reaction gas retarded the cementite formation but made the cementite more stable. XPS analysis showed that the surface of samples converted to iron carbide using sulfur-containing gas consisted of mainly Fe3C and a small amount of graphitic carbon. Raman spectra of a sample produced in the iron carbide process showed the G and D bands, which are characteristic for carbon-carbon bonds. The intensity ratio of G/D bands depended on the sulfur content in the reducing/carburizing gas.

AB - Iron carbide was prepared by iron ore reduction and iron cementation using Ar-H-2-CH4 gas mixture with and without sulfur. Phases formed in the reduction/cementation process were examined by Xray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer, and Raman spectroscopy. The sample surface was also analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and Mossbauer analyses showed that iron oxide was first reduced to metallic iron, and then, metallic iron was carburized to cementite. Addition of a small amount of H2S to the reaction gas retarded the cementite formation but made the cementite more stable. XPS analysis showed that the surface of samples converted to iron carbide using sulfur-containing gas consisted of mainly Fe3C and a small amount of graphitic carbon. Raman spectra of a sample produced in the iron carbide process showed the G and D bands, which are characteristic for carbon-carbon bonds. The intensity ratio of G/D bands depended on the sulfur content in the reducing/carburizing gas.

KW - CARBON

KW - FE3C

KW - SEGREGATION

KW - CEMENTITE

KW - GRAPHITE

KW - SPECTRA

KW - SURFACE

KW - FILMS

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 839

EP - 845

JO - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. B, Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science

JF - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. B, Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science

SN - 1073-5615

ER -