Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

Carlos E Cruz, Andréa C Fogaça, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Cláudia B Angeli, Rodrigo Belmonte, Igor C Almeida, Antônio Miranda, Maria Terêsa M Miranda, Aparecida S Tanaka, Glória R Braz, Charles S Craik, Eric Schneider, Conor R Caffrey, Sirlei Daffre

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Abstract

Background
Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins). A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins.

Results
An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'.

Conclusions
BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.
Original languageEnglish
Article number63
Number of pages15
JournalParasites & Vectors
Volume3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jul 2010

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Rhipicephalus
Ticks
Hemoglobins
Peptide Hydrolases
Tick Control
Aspartic Acid Proteases
Cathepsin L
Peptide Library
Peptides
Cysteine Proteases
Substrate Specificity
Reverse Transcription
Immunity
Amino Acids
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Enzymes
In Vitro Techniques

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Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides. / Cruz, Carlos E; Fogaça, Andréa C; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Angeli, Cláudia B; Belmonte, Rodrigo; Almeida, Igor C; Miranda, Antônio; Miranda, Maria Terêsa M; Tanaka, Aparecida S; Braz, Glória R; Craik, Charles S; Schneider, Eric; Caffrey, Conor R; Daffre, Sirlei.

In: Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 3, 63, 27.07.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cruz, CE, Fogaça, AC, Nakayasu, ES, Angeli, CB, Belmonte, R, Almeida, IC, Miranda, A, Miranda, MTM, Tanaka, AS, Braz, GR, Craik, CS, Schneider, E, Caffrey, CR & Daffre, S 2010, 'Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides', Parasites & Vectors, vol. 3, 63. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-3-63
Cruz, Carlos E ; Fogaça, Andréa C ; Nakayasu, Ernesto S ; Angeli, Cláudia B ; Belmonte, Rodrigo ; Almeida, Igor C ; Miranda, Antônio ; Miranda, Maria Terêsa M ; Tanaka, Aparecida S ; Braz, Glória R ; Craik, Charles S ; Schneider, Eric ; Caffrey, Conor R ; Daffre, Sirlei. / Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides. In: Parasites & Vectors. 2010 ; Vol. 3.
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abstract = "BackgroundHemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins). A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins.ResultsAn aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'.ConclusionsBmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.",
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T1 - Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

AU - Cruz, Carlos E

AU - Fogaça, Andréa C

AU - Nakayasu, Ernesto S

AU - Angeli, Cláudia B

AU - Belmonte, Rodrigo

AU - Almeida, Igor C

AU - Miranda, Antônio

AU - Miranda, Maria Terêsa M

AU - Tanaka, Aparecida S

AU - Braz, Glória R

AU - Craik, Charles S

AU - Schneider, Eric

AU - Caffrey, Conor R

AU - Daffre, Sirlei

PY - 2010/7/27

Y1 - 2010/7/27

N2 - BackgroundHemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins). A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins.ResultsAn aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'.ConclusionsBmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

AB - BackgroundHemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins). A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins.ResultsAn aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'.ConclusionsBmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

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JO - Parasites & Vectors

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