Childhood IQ, smoking and cognitive change from age 11 to 64 years

Lawrence Jeffrey Whalley, Helen Catherine Fox, I. J. Deary, J. M. Starr

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    Abstract

    We investigated whether smoking is a risk factor for relative cognitive decline from age 11 to 64 years. The potentially confounding effects of childhood IQ, occupational status, level of education, presence of heart disease, hypertension, and lung function were examined. Subjects were nondemented and living independently. They were all born in 1936, had been participants in the same Scottish national IQ survey in 1947, and were reexamined at age about 64 years in 2000-2002. Current smokers and nonsmokers had significantly different mental test scores at age 64. This difference remained after adjustment for childhood IQ. Multiple linear regression identified childhood IQ, level of education, occupational code, lung function, and smoking history as significant independent predictors of mental function at age 64. In this sample, smoking makes a small (<1% variance) independent negative contribution to cognitive aging. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)77-88
    Number of pages11
    JournalAddictive Behaviors
    Volume30
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2005

    Keywords

    • cognitive aging
    • smoking
    • lung function
    • childhood intelligence
    • MINI-MENTAL-STATE
    • CIGARETTE-SMOKING
    • ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE
    • COHORT
    • PERFORMANCE
    • RISK
    • POPULATION
    • DRINKING
    • DEMENTIA
    • LIFE

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