Childhood IQ, social class, deprivation, and their relationships with mortality and morbidity risk in later life: prospective observational studies linking the Scottish mental survey of 1932 with the Midspan studies

C. L. Hart, Mark Steven Taylor, G. Davey-Smith, Lawrence Jeffrey Whalley, J. M. Starr, D. J. Hole, V. Wilson, I. J. Deary

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    163 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Objective: To investigate how childhood mental ability (IQ) is related to mortality and morbidity risk, when socioeconornic factors are also considered. Methods: Participants were from the Midspan studies conducted on adults in the 1970s; 938 Midspan participants were successfully matched with the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 in which children born in 1921 and attending Scottish schools on June 1, 1932, took a cognitive ability test. Mortality, hospital admissions, and cancer incidence in the 25 years after the Midspan screening were investigated in relation to childhood IQ, social class, and deprivation. Results: The risk of dying in 25 years was 17% higher for each standard deviation disadvantage in childhood IQ. Adjustment for social class and deprivation category accounted for some, but not all, of this higher risk, reducing it to 12%. Analysis by IQ quartile showed a substantial increased risk of death for the lowest-scoring quarter only. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of childhood IQ on mortality was partly indirectly influenced by social factors. Cause-specific mortality or hospital admission showed that lower IQ was associated with higher risks for all cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Cause-specific mortality or cancer incidence risk was higher with decreasing IQ for lung cancer.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)877-883
    Number of pages6
    JournalPsychosomatic Medicine
    Volume65
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2003

    Keywords

    • cohort
    • deprivation
    • mental ability
    • mortality
    • Scotland
    • social class
    • AGE 11 YEARS
    • ADULT MORTALITY
    • PREDICTORS
    • COHORT
    • HEALTH
    • INTELLIGENCE
    • POPULATION
    • LONGEVITY
    • SURVIVAL
    • STROKE

    Cite this

    Childhood IQ, social class, deprivation, and their relationships with mortality and morbidity risk in later life: prospective observational studies linking the Scottish mental survey of 1932 with the Midspan studies. / Hart, C. L.; Taylor, Mark Steven; Davey-Smith, G.; Whalley, Lawrence Jeffrey; Starr, J. M.; Hole, D. J.; Wilson, V.; Deary, I. J.

    In: Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 65, 2003, p. 877-883.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Hart, C. L. ; Taylor, Mark Steven ; Davey-Smith, G. ; Whalley, Lawrence Jeffrey ; Starr, J. M. ; Hole, D. J. ; Wilson, V. ; Deary, I. J. / Childhood IQ, social class, deprivation, and their relationships with mortality and morbidity risk in later life: prospective observational studies linking the Scottish mental survey of 1932 with the Midspan studies. In: Psychosomatic Medicine. 2003 ; Vol. 65. pp. 877-883.
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    abstract = "Objective: To investigate how childhood mental ability (IQ) is related to mortality and morbidity risk, when socioeconornic factors are also considered. Methods: Participants were from the Midspan studies conducted on adults in the 1970s; 938 Midspan participants were successfully matched with the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 in which children born in 1921 and attending Scottish schools on June 1, 1932, took a cognitive ability test. Mortality, hospital admissions, and cancer incidence in the 25 years after the Midspan screening were investigated in relation to childhood IQ, social class, and deprivation. Results: The risk of dying in 25 years was 17{\%} higher for each standard deviation disadvantage in childhood IQ. Adjustment for social class and deprivation category accounted for some, but not all, of this higher risk, reducing it to 12{\%}. Analysis by IQ quartile showed a substantial increased risk of death for the lowest-scoring quarter only. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of childhood IQ on mortality was partly indirectly influenced by social factors. Cause-specific mortality or hospital admission showed that lower IQ was associated with higher risks for all cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Cause-specific mortality or cancer incidence risk was higher with decreasing IQ for lung cancer.",
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    AU - Hart, C. L.

    AU - Taylor, Mark Steven

    AU - Davey-Smith, G.

    AU - Whalley, Lawrence Jeffrey

    AU - Starr, J. M.

    AU - Hole, D. J.

    AU - Wilson, V.

    AU - Deary, I. J.

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    N2 - Objective: To investigate how childhood mental ability (IQ) is related to mortality and morbidity risk, when socioeconornic factors are also considered. Methods: Participants were from the Midspan studies conducted on adults in the 1970s; 938 Midspan participants were successfully matched with the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 in which children born in 1921 and attending Scottish schools on June 1, 1932, took a cognitive ability test. Mortality, hospital admissions, and cancer incidence in the 25 years after the Midspan screening were investigated in relation to childhood IQ, social class, and deprivation. Results: The risk of dying in 25 years was 17% higher for each standard deviation disadvantage in childhood IQ. Adjustment for social class and deprivation category accounted for some, but not all, of this higher risk, reducing it to 12%. Analysis by IQ quartile showed a substantial increased risk of death for the lowest-scoring quarter only. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of childhood IQ on mortality was partly indirectly influenced by social factors. Cause-specific mortality or hospital admission showed that lower IQ was associated with higher risks for all cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Cause-specific mortality or cancer incidence risk was higher with decreasing IQ for lung cancer.

    AB - Objective: To investigate how childhood mental ability (IQ) is related to mortality and morbidity risk, when socioeconornic factors are also considered. Methods: Participants were from the Midspan studies conducted on adults in the 1970s; 938 Midspan participants were successfully matched with the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 in which children born in 1921 and attending Scottish schools on June 1, 1932, took a cognitive ability test. Mortality, hospital admissions, and cancer incidence in the 25 years after the Midspan screening were investigated in relation to childhood IQ, social class, and deprivation. Results: The risk of dying in 25 years was 17% higher for each standard deviation disadvantage in childhood IQ. Adjustment for social class and deprivation category accounted for some, but not all, of this higher risk, reducing it to 12%. Analysis by IQ quartile showed a substantial increased risk of death for the lowest-scoring quarter only. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of childhood IQ on mortality was partly indirectly influenced by social factors. Cause-specific mortality or hospital admission showed that lower IQ was associated with higher risks for all cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Cause-specific mortality or cancer incidence risk was higher with decreasing IQ for lung cancer.

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