Childhood socioeconomic position and objectively measured physical capability levels in adulthood

a systematic review and meta-analysis

Kate Birnie, Rachel Cooper, Richard M Martin, Diana Kuh, Avan Aihie Sayer, Beatriz E Alvarado, Antony Bayer, Kaare Christensen, Sung-il Cho, Cyrus Cooper, Janie Corley, Leone Craig, Ian J Deary, Panayotes Demakakos, Shah Ebrahim, John Gallacher, Alan J Gow, David Gunnell, Steven Haas, Tomas Hemmingsson & 18 others Hazel Inskip, Soong-nang Jang, Kenya Noronha, Merete Osler, Alberto Palloni, Finn Rasmussen, Brigitte Santos-Eggimann, Jacques Spagnoli, John Starr, Andrew Steptoe, Holly Syddall, Per Tynelius, David Weir, Lawrence J Whalley, Maria Victoria Zunzunegui, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Rebecca Hardy, HALCyon Study Team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background

Grip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood.

Methods and Findings

Relevant studies published by May 2010 were identified through literature searches using EMBASE and MEDLINE. Unpublished results were obtained from study investigators. Results were provided by all study investigators in a standard format and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. 19 studies were included in the review. Total sample sizes in meta-analyses ranged from N = 17,215 for chair rise time to N = 1,061,855 for grip strength. Although heterogeneity was detected, there was consistent evidence in age adjusted models that lower childhood SEP was associated with modest reductions in physical capability levels in adulthood: comparing the lowest with the highest childhood SEP there was a reduction in grip strength of 0.13 standard deviations (95% CI: 0.06, 0.21), a reduction in mean walking speed of 0.07 m/s (0.05, 0.10), an increase in mean chair rise time of 6% (4%, 8%) and an odds ratio of an inability to balance for 5s of 1.26 (1.02, 1.55). Adjustment for the potential mediating factors, adult SEP and body size attenuated associations greatly. However, despite this attenuation, for walking speed and chair rise time, there was still evidence of moderate associations.

Conclusions

Policies targeting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood may have additional benefits in promoting the maintenance of independence in later life.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere15564
Number of pages13
JournalPloS ONE
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jan 2011

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systematic review
adulthood
meta-analysis
childhood
Meta-Analysis
socioeconomics
Hand Strength
walking
Research Personnel
Body Size
Health
MEDLINE
Sample Size
Odds Ratio
Maintenance
odds ratio
body size
Population
Walking Speed
testing

Cite this

Birnie, K., Cooper, R., Martin, R. M., Kuh, D., Sayer, A. A., Alvarado, B. E., ... HALCyon Study Team (2011). Childhood socioeconomic position and objectively measured physical capability levels in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS ONE, 6(1), [e15564]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015564

Childhood socioeconomic position and objectively measured physical capability levels in adulthood : a systematic review and meta-analysis. / Birnie, Kate; Cooper, Rachel; Martin, Richard M; Kuh, Diana; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Alvarado, Beatriz E; Bayer, Antony; Christensen, Kaare; Cho, Sung-il; Cooper, Cyrus; Corley, Janie; Craig, Leone; Deary, Ian J; Demakakos, Panayotes; Ebrahim, Shah; Gallacher, John; Gow, Alan J; Gunnell, David; Haas, Steven; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Inskip, Hazel; Jang, Soong-nang; Noronha, Kenya; Osler, Merete; Palloni, Alberto; Rasmussen, Finn; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte; Spagnoli, Jacques; Starr, John; Steptoe, Andrew; Syddall, Holly; Tynelius, Per; Weir, David; Whalley, Lawrence J; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca; HALCyon Study Team.

In: PloS ONE, Vol. 6, No. 1, e15564, 26.01.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Birnie, K, Cooper, R, Martin, RM, Kuh, D, Sayer, AA, Alvarado, BE, Bayer, A, Christensen, K, Cho, S, Cooper, C, Corley, J, Craig, L, Deary, IJ, Demakakos, P, Ebrahim, S, Gallacher, J, Gow, AJ, Gunnell, D, Haas, S, Hemmingsson, T, Inskip, H, Jang, S, Noronha, K, Osler, M, Palloni, A, Rasmussen, F, Santos-Eggimann, B, Spagnoli, J, Starr, J, Steptoe, A, Syddall, H, Tynelius, P, Weir, D, Whalley, LJ, Zunzunegui, MV, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Hardy, R & HALCyon Study Team 2011, 'Childhood socioeconomic position and objectively measured physical capability levels in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis', PloS ONE, vol. 6, no. 1, e15564. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015564
Birnie, Kate ; Cooper, Rachel ; Martin, Richard M ; Kuh, Diana ; Sayer, Avan Aihie ; Alvarado, Beatriz E ; Bayer, Antony ; Christensen, Kaare ; Cho, Sung-il ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Corley, Janie ; Craig, Leone ; Deary, Ian J ; Demakakos, Panayotes ; Ebrahim, Shah ; Gallacher, John ; Gow, Alan J ; Gunnell, David ; Haas, Steven ; Hemmingsson, Tomas ; Inskip, Hazel ; Jang, Soong-nang ; Noronha, Kenya ; Osler, Merete ; Palloni, Alberto ; Rasmussen, Finn ; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte ; Spagnoli, Jacques ; Starr, John ; Steptoe, Andrew ; Syddall, Holly ; Tynelius, Per ; Weir, David ; Whalley, Lawrence J ; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria ; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav ; Hardy, Rebecca ; HALCyon Study Team. / Childhood socioeconomic position and objectively measured physical capability levels in adulthood : a systematic review and meta-analysis. In: PloS ONE. 2011 ; Vol. 6, No. 1.
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abstract = "BackgroundGrip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood.Methods and FindingsRelevant studies published by May 2010 were identified through literature searches using EMBASE and MEDLINE. Unpublished results were obtained from study investigators. Results were provided by all study investigators in a standard format and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. 19 studies were included in the review. Total sample sizes in meta-analyses ranged from N = 17,215 for chair rise time to N = 1,061,855 for grip strength. Although heterogeneity was detected, there was consistent evidence in age adjusted models that lower childhood SEP was associated with modest reductions in physical capability levels in adulthood: comparing the lowest with the highest childhood SEP there was a reduction in grip strength of 0.13 standard deviations (95{\%} CI: 0.06, 0.21), a reduction in mean walking speed of 0.07 m/s (0.05, 0.10), an increase in mean chair rise time of 6{\%} (4{\%}, 8{\%}) and an odds ratio of an inability to balance for 5s of 1.26 (1.02, 1.55). Adjustment for the potential mediating factors, adult SEP and body size attenuated associations greatly. However, despite this attenuation, for walking speed and chair rise time, there was still evidence of moderate associations.ConclusionsPolicies targeting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood may have additional benefits in promoting the maintenance of independence in later life.",
author = "Kate Birnie and Rachel Cooper and Martin, {Richard M} and Diana Kuh and Sayer, {Avan Aihie} and Alvarado, {Beatriz E} and Antony Bayer and Kaare Christensen and Sung-il Cho and Cyrus Cooper and Janie Corley and Leone Craig and Deary, {Ian J} and Panayotes Demakakos and Shah Ebrahim and John Gallacher and Gow, {Alan J} and David Gunnell and Steven Haas and Tomas Hemmingsson and Hazel Inskip and Soong-nang Jang and Kenya Noronha and Merete Osler and Alberto Palloni and Finn Rasmussen and Brigitte Santos-Eggimann and Jacques Spagnoli and John Starr and Andrew Steptoe and Holly Syddall and Per Tynelius and David Weir and Whalley, {Lawrence J} and Zunzunegui, {Maria Victoria} and Yoav Ben-Shlomo and Rebecca Hardy and {HALCyon Study Team}",
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T1 - Childhood socioeconomic position and objectively measured physical capability levels in adulthood

T2 - a systematic review and meta-analysis

AU - Birnie, Kate

AU - Cooper, Rachel

AU - Martin, Richard M

AU - Kuh, Diana

AU - Sayer, Avan Aihie

AU - Alvarado, Beatriz E

AU - Bayer, Antony

AU - Christensen, Kaare

AU - Cho, Sung-il

AU - Cooper, Cyrus

AU - Corley, Janie

AU - Craig, Leone

AU - Deary, Ian J

AU - Demakakos, Panayotes

AU - Ebrahim, Shah

AU - Gallacher, John

AU - Gow, Alan J

AU - Gunnell, David

AU - Haas, Steven

AU - Hemmingsson, Tomas

AU - Inskip, Hazel

AU - Jang, Soong-nang

AU - Noronha, Kenya

AU - Osler, Merete

AU - Palloni, Alberto

AU - Rasmussen, Finn

AU - Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

AU - Spagnoli, Jacques

AU - Starr, John

AU - Steptoe, Andrew

AU - Syddall, Holly

AU - Tynelius, Per

AU - Weir, David

AU - Whalley, Lawrence J

AU - Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

AU - Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

AU - Hardy, Rebecca

AU - HALCyon Study Team

PY - 2011/1/26

Y1 - 2011/1/26

N2 - BackgroundGrip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood.Methods and FindingsRelevant studies published by May 2010 were identified through literature searches using EMBASE and MEDLINE. Unpublished results were obtained from study investigators. Results were provided by all study investigators in a standard format and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. 19 studies were included in the review. Total sample sizes in meta-analyses ranged from N = 17,215 for chair rise time to N = 1,061,855 for grip strength. Although heterogeneity was detected, there was consistent evidence in age adjusted models that lower childhood SEP was associated with modest reductions in physical capability levels in adulthood: comparing the lowest with the highest childhood SEP there was a reduction in grip strength of 0.13 standard deviations (95% CI: 0.06, 0.21), a reduction in mean walking speed of 0.07 m/s (0.05, 0.10), an increase in mean chair rise time of 6% (4%, 8%) and an odds ratio of an inability to balance for 5s of 1.26 (1.02, 1.55). Adjustment for the potential mediating factors, adult SEP and body size attenuated associations greatly. However, despite this attenuation, for walking speed and chair rise time, there was still evidence of moderate associations.ConclusionsPolicies targeting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood may have additional benefits in promoting the maintenance of independence in later life.

AB - BackgroundGrip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood.Methods and FindingsRelevant studies published by May 2010 were identified through literature searches using EMBASE and MEDLINE. Unpublished results were obtained from study investigators. Results were provided by all study investigators in a standard format and pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. 19 studies were included in the review. Total sample sizes in meta-analyses ranged from N = 17,215 for chair rise time to N = 1,061,855 for grip strength. Although heterogeneity was detected, there was consistent evidence in age adjusted models that lower childhood SEP was associated with modest reductions in physical capability levels in adulthood: comparing the lowest with the highest childhood SEP there was a reduction in grip strength of 0.13 standard deviations (95% CI: 0.06, 0.21), a reduction in mean walking speed of 0.07 m/s (0.05, 0.10), an increase in mean chair rise time of 6% (4%, 8%) and an odds ratio of an inability to balance for 5s of 1.26 (1.02, 1.55). Adjustment for the potential mediating factors, adult SEP and body size attenuated associations greatly. However, despite this attenuation, for walking speed and chair rise time, there was still evidence of moderate associations.ConclusionsPolicies targeting socioeconomic inequalities in childhood may have additional benefits in promoting the maintenance of independence in later life.

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0015564

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0015564

M3 - Article

VL - 6

JO - PloS ONE

JF - PloS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 1

M1 - e15564

ER -