Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) after treatment for cervical dysplasia. Study Design: The presence of HPV was investigated in cervical scrapes of 91 patients, before and after treatment, using consensus primers in the polymerase chain reaction. Results: Before treatment for cervical dysplasia, 89 of 91 patients (98%) were HPV-positive compared with 28 of 91 patients (31%) after treatment. The HPV type present before treatment was found in the scrapes of only 9 of 89 patients (10%). Detection of HPV after treatment was associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and incomplete conization. Conclusion: The HPV type present before treatment was frequently cleared by treatment for cervical dysplasia.