Co-ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate with milk minerals rich in calcium potently stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion: an RCT in healthy adults

Yung-Chih Chen, Harry A Smith, Aaron Hengist, Oliver J Chrzanowski-Smith, Ulla Ramer Mikkelsen, Harriet A Carroll, James A Betts, Dylan Thompson, John Saunders, Javier T Gonzalez* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE: To examine whether calcium type and co-ingestion with protein alter gut hormone availability.

METHODS: Healthy adults aged 26 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) completed three randomized, double-blind, crossover studies. In all studies, arterialized blood was sampled postprandially over 120 min to determine GLP-1, GIP and PYY responses, alongside appetite ratings, energy expenditure and blood pressure. In study 1 (n = 20), three treatments matched for total calcium content (1058 mg) were compared: calcium citrate (CALCITR); milk minerals rich in calcium (MILK MINERALS); and milk minerals rich in calcium plus co-ingestion of 50 g whey protein hydrolysate (MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN). In study 2 (n = 6), 50 g whey protein hydrolysate (PROTEIN) was compared to MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN. In study 3 (n = 6), MILK MINERALS was compared to the vehicle of ingestion (water plus sucralose; CONTROL).

RESULTS: MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN increased GLP-1 incremental area under the curve (iAUC) by ~ ninefold (43.7 ± 11.1 pmol L-1 120 min; p < 0.001) versus both CALCITR and MILK MINERALS, with no difference detected between CALCITR (6.6 ± 3.7 pmol L-1 120 min) and MILK MINERALS (5.3 ± 3.5 pmol L-1 120 min; p > 0.999). MILK MINERALS + PROTEIN produced a GLP-1 iAUC ~ 25% greater than PROTEIN (p = 0.024; mean difference: 9.1 ± 6.9 pmol L-1 120 min), whereas the difference between MILK MINERALS versus CONTROL was small and non-significant (p = 0.098; mean difference: 4.2 ± 5.1 pmol L-1 120 min).

CONCLUSIONS: When ingested alone, milk minerals rich in calcium do not increase GLP-1 secretion compared to calcium citrate. Co-ingesting high-dose whey protein hydrolysate with milk minerals rich in calcium increases postprandial GLP-1 concentrations to some of the highest physiological levels ever reported. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03232034, NCT03370484, NCT03370497.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2449-2462
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume59
Issue number6
Early online date17 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020

Keywords

  • Incretins
  • Calcium
  • Protein
  • Metabolism
  • Peptide tyrosine tyrosine
  • Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
  • Postprandial
  • SENSING RECEPTOR
  • FOOD-INTAKE
  • ENERGY-INTAKE
  • EXERCISE
  • SUPPLEMENTATION
  • GLYCEMIA
  • METABOLISM
  • GLUCOSE
  • GUT HORMONE-RELEASE
  • APPETITE

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    Chen, Y-C., Smith, H. A., Hengist, A., Chrzanowski-Smith, O. J., Mikkelsen, U. R., Carroll, H. A., Betts, J. A., Thompson, D., Saunders, J., & Gonzalez, J. T. (2020). Co-ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate with milk minerals rich in calcium potently stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion: an RCT in healthy adults. European Journal of Nutrition, 59(6), 2449-2462. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-02092-4