Cognitive reserve and the neurobiology of cognitive aging

Lawrence Jeffrey Whalley, J. M. Starr, Charlotte Louise Appleton, I. J. Deary

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    261 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    A hypothetical construct of "cognitive reserve" is widely used to explain how, in the face of neurodegenerative changes that are similar in nature and extent, individuals vary considerably in the severity of cognitive aging and clinical dementia. Intelligence, education and occupational level are believed to be major active components of cognitive reserve. Here, we summarize the main features of cognitive aging and their neuropathological correlates. We describe the neurobiology of cognitive aging and conclude that perturbations of neural health attributable to oxidative stress and inflammatory processes alone are insufficient to distinguish cognitive aging from Alzheimer's disease. We introduce the concept of cognitive reserve and illustrate its utility in explaining individual differences in cognitive aging. Structural and functional brain imaging studies suggest plausible neural substrates of cognitive reserve, probably involving processes that support neuroplasticity in the aging brain. The cognitive reserve hypothesis conforms with reported associations between early and mid life lifestyle choices, early education, lifelong dietary habit, leisure pursuits and the retention of late life mental ability. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)369-382
    Number of pages13
    JournalAgeing Research Reviews
    Volume3
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2004

    Keywords

    • cognitive aging
    • dementia
    • cognitive reserve
    • education
    • occupation
    • neuroplasticity
    • NATIONAL BIRTH COHORT
    • NEURAL STEM-CELLS
    • ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE
    • NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS
    • NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES
    • INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES
    • ENTORHINAL CORTEX
    • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
    • CEREBRAL-CORTEX
    • MENTAL-ABILITY

    Cite this

    Whalley, L. J., Starr, J. M., Appleton, C. L., & Deary, I. J. (2004). Cognitive reserve and the neurobiology of cognitive aging. Ageing Research Reviews, 3(4), 369-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2004.05.001

    Cognitive reserve and the neurobiology of cognitive aging. / Whalley, Lawrence Jeffrey; Starr, J. M.; Appleton, Charlotte Louise; Deary, I. J.

    In: Ageing Research Reviews, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2004, p. 369-382.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Whalley, LJ, Starr, JM, Appleton, CL & Deary, IJ 2004, 'Cognitive reserve and the neurobiology of cognitive aging', Ageing Research Reviews, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 369-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2004.05.001
    Whalley, Lawrence Jeffrey ; Starr, J. M. ; Appleton, Charlotte Louise ; Deary, I. J. / Cognitive reserve and the neurobiology of cognitive aging. In: Ageing Research Reviews. 2004 ; Vol. 3, No. 4. pp. 369-382.
    @article{318bd3b9bab04c5882a30d55d074a5f2,
    title = "Cognitive reserve and the neurobiology of cognitive aging",
    abstract = "A hypothetical construct of {"}cognitive reserve{"} is widely used to explain how, in the face of neurodegenerative changes that are similar in nature and extent, individuals vary considerably in the severity of cognitive aging and clinical dementia. Intelligence, education and occupational level are believed to be major active components of cognitive reserve. Here, we summarize the main features of cognitive aging and their neuropathological correlates. We describe the neurobiology of cognitive aging and conclude that perturbations of neural health attributable to oxidative stress and inflammatory processes alone are insufficient to distinguish cognitive aging from Alzheimer's disease. We introduce the concept of cognitive reserve and illustrate its utility in explaining individual differences in cognitive aging. Structural and functional brain imaging studies suggest plausible neural substrates of cognitive reserve, probably involving processes that support neuroplasticity in the aging brain. The cognitive reserve hypothesis conforms with reported associations between early and mid life lifestyle choices, early education, lifelong dietary habit, leisure pursuits and the retention of late life mental ability. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.",
    keywords = "cognitive aging, dementia, cognitive reserve, education, occupation, neuroplasticity, NATIONAL BIRTH COHORT, NEURAL STEM-CELLS, ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE, NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS, NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES, INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES, ENTORHINAL CORTEX, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, CEREBRAL-CORTEX, MENTAL-ABILITY",
    author = "Whalley, {Lawrence Jeffrey} and Starr, {J. M.} and Appleton, {Charlotte Louise} and Deary, {I. J.}",
    year = "2004",
    doi = "10.1016/j.arr.2004.05.001",
    language = "English",
    volume = "3",
    pages = "369--382",
    journal = "Ageing Research Reviews",
    issn = "1568-1637",
    publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
    number = "4",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Cognitive reserve and the neurobiology of cognitive aging

    AU - Whalley, Lawrence Jeffrey

    AU - Starr, J. M.

    AU - Appleton, Charlotte Louise

    AU - Deary, I. J.

    PY - 2004

    Y1 - 2004

    N2 - A hypothetical construct of "cognitive reserve" is widely used to explain how, in the face of neurodegenerative changes that are similar in nature and extent, individuals vary considerably in the severity of cognitive aging and clinical dementia. Intelligence, education and occupational level are believed to be major active components of cognitive reserve. Here, we summarize the main features of cognitive aging and their neuropathological correlates. We describe the neurobiology of cognitive aging and conclude that perturbations of neural health attributable to oxidative stress and inflammatory processes alone are insufficient to distinguish cognitive aging from Alzheimer's disease. We introduce the concept of cognitive reserve and illustrate its utility in explaining individual differences in cognitive aging. Structural and functional brain imaging studies suggest plausible neural substrates of cognitive reserve, probably involving processes that support neuroplasticity in the aging brain. The cognitive reserve hypothesis conforms with reported associations between early and mid life lifestyle choices, early education, lifelong dietary habit, leisure pursuits and the retention of late life mental ability. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

    AB - A hypothetical construct of "cognitive reserve" is widely used to explain how, in the face of neurodegenerative changes that are similar in nature and extent, individuals vary considerably in the severity of cognitive aging and clinical dementia. Intelligence, education and occupational level are believed to be major active components of cognitive reserve. Here, we summarize the main features of cognitive aging and their neuropathological correlates. We describe the neurobiology of cognitive aging and conclude that perturbations of neural health attributable to oxidative stress and inflammatory processes alone are insufficient to distinguish cognitive aging from Alzheimer's disease. We introduce the concept of cognitive reserve and illustrate its utility in explaining individual differences in cognitive aging. Structural and functional brain imaging studies suggest plausible neural substrates of cognitive reserve, probably involving processes that support neuroplasticity in the aging brain. The cognitive reserve hypothesis conforms with reported associations between early and mid life lifestyle choices, early education, lifelong dietary habit, leisure pursuits and the retention of late life mental ability. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

    KW - cognitive aging

    KW - dementia

    KW - cognitive reserve

    KW - education

    KW - occupation

    KW - neuroplasticity

    KW - NATIONAL BIRTH COHORT

    KW - NEURAL STEM-CELLS

    KW - ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE

    KW - NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS

    KW - NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES

    KW - INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES

    KW - ENTORHINAL CORTEX

    KW - PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY

    KW - CEREBRAL-CORTEX

    KW - MENTAL-ABILITY

    U2 - 10.1016/j.arr.2004.05.001

    DO - 10.1016/j.arr.2004.05.001

    M3 - Article

    VL - 3

    SP - 369

    EP - 382

    JO - Ageing Research Reviews

    JF - Ageing Research Reviews

    SN - 1568-1637

    IS - 4

    ER -