Complementary and miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children

Cathryn M. A. Glazener, Jonathan H. C. Evans, Daniel K. L. Cheuk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background

Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially disruptive and stressful condition which affects around 15 to 20% of five year olds, and up to 2% of young adults.
Objectives

To assess the effects of complementary interventions and others such as surgery or diet on nocturnal enuresis in children, and to compare them with other interventions.
Search strategy

We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 16 November 2006), the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS) (January 1984 to June 2004) and the reference lists of relevant articles.
Selection criteria

All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of complementary and other miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children were included except those focused solely on daytime wetting. Comparison interventions could include no treatment, placebo or sham treatment, alarms, simple behavioural treatment, desmopressin, imipramine and miscellaneous other drugs and interventions.
Data collection and analysis

Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials, and extracted data.
Main results

In 15 randomised controlled trials, 1389 children were studied, of whom 703 received a complementary intervention. The quality of the trials was poor: four trials were quasi-randomised, five showed differences at baseline and ten lacked follow up data.

The outcome was better after hypnosis than imipramine in one trial (relative risk (RR) for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.78). Psychotherapy appeared to be better in terms of fewer children failing or relapsing than both alarm (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.85) and rewards (0.29, 95% 0.09 to 0.90) but this depended on data from only one trial. Acupuncture had better results than sham control acupuncture (RR for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.67, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.94) in a further trial. Active chiropractic adjustment had better results than sham adjustment (RR for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.91). However, each of these findings came from small single trials, and need to be verified in further trials. The findings for diet and faradization were unreliable, and there were no trials including homeopathy or surgery.
Authors' conclusions

There was weak evidence to support the use of hypnosis, psychotherapy, acupuncture and chiropractic but it was provided in each case by single small trials, some of dubious methodological rigour. Robust randomised trials are required with efficacy, cost-effectiveness and adverse effects carefully monitored.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberCD005230
Number of pages46
JournalCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2005

Fingerprint

Nocturnal Enuresis
Acupuncture
Confidence Intervals
Hypnosis
Imipramine
Recurrence
Psychotherapy
MEDLARS
Diurnal Enuresis
Chiropractic Manipulation
Placebos
Diet
Therapeutics
Social Adjustment
Enuresis
Chiropractic
Homeopathy
Deamino Arginine Vasopressin
Reward
Cost-Benefit Analysis

Cite this

Complementary and miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. / Glazener, Cathryn M. A.; Evans, Jonathan H. C.; Cheuk, Daniel K. L.

In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, No. 2, CD005230, 20.04.2005.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "BackgroundNocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially disruptive and stressful condition which affects around 15 to 20{\%} of five year olds, and up to 2{\%} of young adults.ObjectivesTo assess the effects of complementary interventions and others such as surgery or diet on nocturnal enuresis in children, and to compare them with other interventions.Search strategyWe searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 16 November 2006), the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS) (January 1984 to June 2004) and the reference lists of relevant articles.Selection criteriaAll randomised or quasi-randomised trials of complementary and other miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children were included except those focused solely on daytime wetting. Comparison interventions could include no treatment, placebo or sham treatment, alarms, simple behavioural treatment, desmopressin, imipramine and miscellaneous other drugs and interventions.Data collection and analysisTwo reviewers independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials, and extracted data.Main resultsIn 15 randomised controlled trials, 1389 children were studied, of whom 703 received a complementary intervention. The quality of the trials was poor: four trials were quasi-randomised, five showed differences at baseline and ten lacked follow up data.The outcome was better after hypnosis than imipramine in one trial (relative risk (RR) for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.42, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.78). Psychotherapy appeared to be better in terms of fewer children failing or relapsing than both alarm (RR 0.28, 95{\%} CI 0.09 to 0.85) and rewards (0.29, 95{\%} 0.09 to 0.90) but this depended on data from only one trial. Acupuncture had better results than sham control acupuncture (RR for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.67, 95{\%} CI 0.48 to 0.94) in a further trial. Active chiropractic adjustment had better results than sham adjustment (RR for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.74, 95{\%} CI 0.60 to 0.91). However, each of these findings came from small single trials, and need to be verified in further trials. The findings for diet and faradization were unreliable, and there were no trials including homeopathy or surgery.Authors' conclusionsThere was weak evidence to support the use of hypnosis, psychotherapy, acupuncture and chiropractic but it was provided in each case by single small trials, some of dubious methodological rigour. Robust randomised trials are required with efficacy, cost-effectiveness and adverse effects carefully monitored.",
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N2 - BackgroundNocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially disruptive and stressful condition which affects around 15 to 20% of five year olds, and up to 2% of young adults.ObjectivesTo assess the effects of complementary interventions and others such as surgery or diet on nocturnal enuresis in children, and to compare them with other interventions.Search strategyWe searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 16 November 2006), the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS) (January 1984 to June 2004) and the reference lists of relevant articles.Selection criteriaAll randomised or quasi-randomised trials of complementary and other miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children were included except those focused solely on daytime wetting. Comparison interventions could include no treatment, placebo or sham treatment, alarms, simple behavioural treatment, desmopressin, imipramine and miscellaneous other drugs and interventions.Data collection and analysisTwo reviewers independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials, and extracted data.Main resultsIn 15 randomised controlled trials, 1389 children were studied, of whom 703 received a complementary intervention. The quality of the trials was poor: four trials were quasi-randomised, five showed differences at baseline and ten lacked follow up data.The outcome was better after hypnosis than imipramine in one trial (relative risk (RR) for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.78). Psychotherapy appeared to be better in terms of fewer children failing or relapsing than both alarm (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.85) and rewards (0.29, 95% 0.09 to 0.90) but this depended on data from only one trial. Acupuncture had better results than sham control acupuncture (RR for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.67, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.94) in a further trial. Active chiropractic adjustment had better results than sham adjustment (RR for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.91). However, each of these findings came from small single trials, and need to be verified in further trials. The findings for diet and faradization were unreliable, and there were no trials including homeopathy or surgery.Authors' conclusionsThere was weak evidence to support the use of hypnosis, psychotherapy, acupuncture and chiropractic but it was provided in each case by single small trials, some of dubious methodological rigour. Robust randomised trials are required with efficacy, cost-effectiveness and adverse effects carefully monitored.

AB - BackgroundNocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially disruptive and stressful condition which affects around 15 to 20% of five year olds, and up to 2% of young adults.ObjectivesTo assess the effects of complementary interventions and others such as surgery or diet on nocturnal enuresis in children, and to compare them with other interventions.Search strategyWe searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 16 November 2006), the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS) (January 1984 to June 2004) and the reference lists of relevant articles.Selection criteriaAll randomised or quasi-randomised trials of complementary and other miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children were included except those focused solely on daytime wetting. Comparison interventions could include no treatment, placebo or sham treatment, alarms, simple behavioural treatment, desmopressin, imipramine and miscellaneous other drugs and interventions.Data collection and analysisTwo reviewers independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials, and extracted data.Main resultsIn 15 randomised controlled trials, 1389 children were studied, of whom 703 received a complementary intervention. The quality of the trials was poor: four trials were quasi-randomised, five showed differences at baseline and ten lacked follow up data.The outcome was better after hypnosis than imipramine in one trial (relative risk (RR) for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.78). Psychotherapy appeared to be better in terms of fewer children failing or relapsing than both alarm (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.85) and rewards (0.29, 95% 0.09 to 0.90) but this depended on data from only one trial. Acupuncture had better results than sham control acupuncture (RR for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.67, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.94) in a further trial. Active chiropractic adjustment had better results than sham adjustment (RR for failure or relapse after stopping treatment 0.74, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.91). However, each of these findings came from small single trials, and need to be verified in further trials. The findings for diet and faradization were unreliable, and there were no trials including homeopathy or surgery.Authors' conclusionsThere was weak evidence to support the use of hypnosis, psychotherapy, acupuncture and chiropractic but it was provided in each case by single small trials, some of dubious methodological rigour. Robust randomised trials are required with efficacy, cost-effectiveness and adverse effects carefully monitored.

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