Complex networks: Dynamics and security

Ying-Cheng Lai, A. E. Motter, T. Nishikawa, Kwangho Park, Liang Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper presents a perspective in the study of complex networks by focusing on how dynamics may affect network security under attacks. In particular, we review two related problems: attack-induced cascading breakdown and range-based attacks on links. A cascade in a network means the failure of a substantial fraction of the entire network in a cascading manner, which can be induced by the failure of or attacks on only a few nodes. These have been reported for the internet and for the power grid (e.g., the August 10, 1996 failure of the western United States power grid). We study a mechanism for cascades in complex networks by constructing a model incorporating the flows of information and physical quantities in the network. Using this model we can also show that the cascading phenomenon can be understood as a phase transition in terms of the key parameter characterizing the node capacity. For a parameter value below the phase-transition point, cascading failures can cause the network to disintegrate almost entirely. We will show how to obtain a theoretical estimate for the phase-transition point. The second problem is motivated by the fact that most existing works on the security of complex networks consider attacks on nodes rather than on links. We address attacks on links. Our investigation leads to the finding. that many scale-free networks are more sensitive to attacks on short-range than on long-range links. Considering that the small-world phenomenon in complex networks has been identified as being due to the presence of long-range links, i.e., links connecting nodes that would otherwise be separated by a long node-to-node distance, our result, besides its importance concerning network efficiency and security, has the striking implication that the small-world property of scale-free networks is mainly due to short-range links.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-502
Number of pages20
JournalPramana
Volume64
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2005
EventConference on Perspectives in Nonlinear Dynamics (PNLD 2004) - Chennai, India
Duration: 12 Jul 200415 Jul 2004

Keywords

  • scale-free network
  • network security
  • attacks
  • cascading breakdown
  • phase transition
  • small-world networks
  • internet
  • fragility
  • attack
  • web

Cite this

Lai, Y-C., Motter, A. E., Nishikawa, T., Park, K., & Zhao, L. (2005). Complex networks: Dynamics and security. Pramana, 64(4), 483-502. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02706197

Complex networks : Dynamics and security. / Lai, Ying-Cheng; Motter, A. E.; Nishikawa, T.; Park, Kwangho; Zhao, Liang.

In: Pramana, Vol. 64, No. 4, 04.2005, p. 483-502.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lai, Y-C, Motter, AE, Nishikawa, T, Park, K & Zhao, L 2005, 'Complex networks: Dynamics and security', Pramana, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 483-502. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02706197
Lai Y-C, Motter AE, Nishikawa T, Park K, Zhao L. Complex networks: Dynamics and security. Pramana. 2005 Apr;64(4):483-502. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02706197
Lai, Ying-Cheng ; Motter, A. E. ; Nishikawa, T. ; Park, Kwangho ; Zhao, Liang. / Complex networks : Dynamics and security. In: Pramana. 2005 ; Vol. 64, No. 4. pp. 483-502.
@article{134b145fcf7843169ce45f514b69d50a,
title = "Complex networks: Dynamics and security",
abstract = "This paper presents a perspective in the study of complex networks by focusing on how dynamics may affect network security under attacks. In particular, we review two related problems: attack-induced cascading breakdown and range-based attacks on links. A cascade in a network means the failure of a substantial fraction of the entire network in a cascading manner, which can be induced by the failure of or attacks on only a few nodes. These have been reported for the internet and for the power grid (e.g., the August 10, 1996 failure of the western United States power grid). We study a mechanism for cascades in complex networks by constructing a model incorporating the flows of information and physical quantities in the network. Using this model we can also show that the cascading phenomenon can be understood as a phase transition in terms of the key parameter characterizing the node capacity. For a parameter value below the phase-transition point, cascading failures can cause the network to disintegrate almost entirely. We will show how to obtain a theoretical estimate for the phase-transition point. The second problem is motivated by the fact that most existing works on the security of complex networks consider attacks on nodes rather than on links. We address attacks on links. Our investigation leads to the finding. that many scale-free networks are more sensitive to attacks on short-range than on long-range links. Considering that the small-world phenomenon in complex networks has been identified as being due to the presence of long-range links, i.e., links connecting nodes that would otherwise be separated by a long node-to-node distance, our result, besides its importance concerning network efficiency and security, has the striking implication that the small-world property of scale-free networks is mainly due to short-range links.",
keywords = "scale-free network, network security, attacks, cascading breakdown, phase transition, small-world networks, internet, fragility, attack, web",
author = "Ying-Cheng Lai and Motter, {A. E.} and T. Nishikawa and Kwangho Park and Liang Zhao",
year = "2005",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1007/BF02706197",
language = "English",
volume = "64",
pages = "483--502",
journal = "Pramana",
issn = "0304-4289",
publisher = "Indian Academy of Sciences",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Complex networks

T2 - Dynamics and security

AU - Lai, Ying-Cheng

AU - Motter, A. E.

AU - Nishikawa, T.

AU - Park, Kwangho

AU - Zhao, Liang

PY - 2005/4

Y1 - 2005/4

N2 - This paper presents a perspective in the study of complex networks by focusing on how dynamics may affect network security under attacks. In particular, we review two related problems: attack-induced cascading breakdown and range-based attacks on links. A cascade in a network means the failure of a substantial fraction of the entire network in a cascading manner, which can be induced by the failure of or attacks on only a few nodes. These have been reported for the internet and for the power grid (e.g., the August 10, 1996 failure of the western United States power grid). We study a mechanism for cascades in complex networks by constructing a model incorporating the flows of information and physical quantities in the network. Using this model we can also show that the cascading phenomenon can be understood as a phase transition in terms of the key parameter characterizing the node capacity. For a parameter value below the phase-transition point, cascading failures can cause the network to disintegrate almost entirely. We will show how to obtain a theoretical estimate for the phase-transition point. The second problem is motivated by the fact that most existing works on the security of complex networks consider attacks on nodes rather than on links. We address attacks on links. Our investigation leads to the finding. that many scale-free networks are more sensitive to attacks on short-range than on long-range links. Considering that the small-world phenomenon in complex networks has been identified as being due to the presence of long-range links, i.e., links connecting nodes that would otherwise be separated by a long node-to-node distance, our result, besides its importance concerning network efficiency and security, has the striking implication that the small-world property of scale-free networks is mainly due to short-range links.

AB - This paper presents a perspective in the study of complex networks by focusing on how dynamics may affect network security under attacks. In particular, we review two related problems: attack-induced cascading breakdown and range-based attacks on links. A cascade in a network means the failure of a substantial fraction of the entire network in a cascading manner, which can be induced by the failure of or attacks on only a few nodes. These have been reported for the internet and for the power grid (e.g., the August 10, 1996 failure of the western United States power grid). We study a mechanism for cascades in complex networks by constructing a model incorporating the flows of information and physical quantities in the network. Using this model we can also show that the cascading phenomenon can be understood as a phase transition in terms of the key parameter characterizing the node capacity. For a parameter value below the phase-transition point, cascading failures can cause the network to disintegrate almost entirely. We will show how to obtain a theoretical estimate for the phase-transition point. The second problem is motivated by the fact that most existing works on the security of complex networks consider attacks on nodes rather than on links. We address attacks on links. Our investigation leads to the finding. that many scale-free networks are more sensitive to attacks on short-range than on long-range links. Considering that the small-world phenomenon in complex networks has been identified as being due to the presence of long-range links, i.e., links connecting nodes that would otherwise be separated by a long node-to-node distance, our result, besides its importance concerning network efficiency and security, has the striking implication that the small-world property of scale-free networks is mainly due to short-range links.

KW - scale-free network

KW - network security

KW - attacks

KW - cascading breakdown

KW - phase transition

KW - small-world networks

KW - internet

KW - fragility

KW - attack

KW - web

U2 - 10.1007/BF02706197

DO - 10.1007/BF02706197

M3 - Article

VL - 64

SP - 483

EP - 502

JO - Pramana

JF - Pramana

SN - 0304-4289

IS - 4

ER -