Computer three-dimensional reconstruction of the sinoatrial node

H Dobrzynski, J Li, J Tellez, I D Greener, V P Nikolski, S E Wright, S H Parson, S A Jones, M K Lancaster, M Yamamoto, H Honjo, Y Takagishi, I Kodama, I R Efimov, R Billeter, M R Boyett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

124 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is an effort to build an anatomically and biophysically detailed virtual heart, and, although there are models for the atria and ventricles, there is no model for the sinoatrial node (SAN). For the SAN to show pacemaking and drive atrial muscle, theoretically, there should be a gradient in electrical coupling from the center to the periphery of the SAN and an interdigitation of SAN and atrial cells at the periphery. Any model should include such features.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Staining of rabbit SAN preparations for histology, middle neurofilament, atrial natriuretic peptide, and connexin (Cx) 43 revealed multiple cell types within and around the SAN (SAN and atrial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes). In contrast to atrial cells, all SAN cells expressed middle neurofilament (but not atrial natriuretic peptide) mRNA and protein. However, 2 distinct SAN cell types were observed: cells in the center (leading pacemaker site) were small, were organized in a mesh, and did not express Cx43. In contrast, cells in the periphery (exit pathway from the SAN) were large, were arranged predominantly in parallel, often expressed Cx43, and were mixed with atrial cells. An approximately 2.5-million-element array model of the SAN and surrounding atrium, incorporating all cell types, was constructed.

CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, a 3D anatomically detailed mathematical model of the SAN has been constructed, and this shows the presence of a specialized interface between the SAN and atrial muscle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)846-54
Number of pages9
JournalCirculation
Volume111
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2005

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Sinoatrial Node
Connexin 43
Intermediate Filaments
Atrial Natriuretic Factor
Muscles
Adipocytes
Histology
Theoretical Models

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Computer Simulation
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Myocardium
  • Neurofilament Proteins
  • Rabbits
  • Sinoatrial Node

Cite this

Dobrzynski, H., Li, J., Tellez, J., Greener, I. D., Nikolski, V. P., Wright, S. E., ... Boyett, M. R. (2005). Computer three-dimensional reconstruction of the sinoatrial node. Circulation, 111(7), 846-54. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000152100.04087.DB

Computer three-dimensional reconstruction of the sinoatrial node. / Dobrzynski, H; Li, J; Tellez, J; Greener, I D; Nikolski, V P; Wright, S E; Parson, S H; Jones, S A; Lancaster, M K; Yamamoto, M; Honjo, H; Takagishi, Y; Kodama, I; Efimov, I R; Billeter, R; Boyett, M R.

In: Circulation, Vol. 111, No. 7, 22.02.2005, p. 846-54.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dobrzynski, H, Li, J, Tellez, J, Greener, ID, Nikolski, VP, Wright, SE, Parson, SH, Jones, SA, Lancaster, MK, Yamamoto, M, Honjo, H, Takagishi, Y, Kodama, I, Efimov, IR, Billeter, R & Boyett, MR 2005, 'Computer three-dimensional reconstruction of the sinoatrial node', Circulation, vol. 111, no. 7, pp. 846-54. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000152100.04087.DB
Dobrzynski H, Li J, Tellez J, Greener ID, Nikolski VP, Wright SE et al. Computer three-dimensional reconstruction of the sinoatrial node. Circulation. 2005 Feb 22;111(7):846-54. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000152100.04087.DB
Dobrzynski, H ; Li, J ; Tellez, J ; Greener, I D ; Nikolski, V P ; Wright, S E ; Parson, S H ; Jones, S A ; Lancaster, M K ; Yamamoto, M ; Honjo, H ; Takagishi, Y ; Kodama, I ; Efimov, I R ; Billeter, R ; Boyett, M R. / Computer three-dimensional reconstruction of the sinoatrial node. In: Circulation. 2005 ; Vol. 111, No. 7. pp. 846-54.
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T1 - Computer three-dimensional reconstruction of the sinoatrial node

AU - Dobrzynski, H

AU - Li, J

AU - Tellez, J

AU - Greener, I D

AU - Nikolski, V P

AU - Wright, S E

AU - Parson, S H

AU - Jones, S A

AU - Lancaster, M K

AU - Yamamoto, M

AU - Honjo, H

AU - Takagishi, Y

AU - Kodama, I

AU - Efimov, I R

AU - Billeter, R

AU - Boyett, M R

PY - 2005/2/22

Y1 - 2005/2/22

N2 - BACKGROUND: There is an effort to build an anatomically and biophysically detailed virtual heart, and, although there are models for the atria and ventricles, there is no model for the sinoatrial node (SAN). For the SAN to show pacemaking and drive atrial muscle, theoretically, there should be a gradient in electrical coupling from the center to the periphery of the SAN and an interdigitation of SAN and atrial cells at the periphery. Any model should include such features.METHODS AND RESULTS: Staining of rabbit SAN preparations for histology, middle neurofilament, atrial natriuretic peptide, and connexin (Cx) 43 revealed multiple cell types within and around the SAN (SAN and atrial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes). In contrast to atrial cells, all SAN cells expressed middle neurofilament (but not atrial natriuretic peptide) mRNA and protein. However, 2 distinct SAN cell types were observed: cells in the center (leading pacemaker site) were small, were organized in a mesh, and did not express Cx43. In contrast, cells in the periphery (exit pathway from the SAN) were large, were arranged predominantly in parallel, often expressed Cx43, and were mixed with atrial cells. An approximately 2.5-million-element array model of the SAN and surrounding atrium, incorporating all cell types, was constructed.CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, a 3D anatomically detailed mathematical model of the SAN has been constructed, and this shows the presence of a specialized interface between the SAN and atrial muscle.

AB - BACKGROUND: There is an effort to build an anatomically and biophysically detailed virtual heart, and, although there are models for the atria and ventricles, there is no model for the sinoatrial node (SAN). For the SAN to show pacemaking and drive atrial muscle, theoretically, there should be a gradient in electrical coupling from the center to the periphery of the SAN and an interdigitation of SAN and atrial cells at the periphery. Any model should include such features.METHODS AND RESULTS: Staining of rabbit SAN preparations for histology, middle neurofilament, atrial natriuretic peptide, and connexin (Cx) 43 revealed multiple cell types within and around the SAN (SAN and atrial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes). In contrast to atrial cells, all SAN cells expressed middle neurofilament (but not atrial natriuretic peptide) mRNA and protein. However, 2 distinct SAN cell types were observed: cells in the center (leading pacemaker site) were small, were organized in a mesh, and did not express Cx43. In contrast, cells in the periphery (exit pathway from the SAN) were large, were arranged predominantly in parallel, often expressed Cx43, and were mixed with atrial cells. An approximately 2.5-million-element array model of the SAN and surrounding atrium, incorporating all cell types, was constructed.CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, a 3D anatomically detailed mathematical model of the SAN has been constructed, and this shows the presence of a specialized interface between the SAN and atrial muscle.

KW - Animals

KW - Computer Simulation

KW - Imaging, Three-Dimensional

KW - Models, Cardiovascular

KW - Models, Theoretical

KW - Myocardium

KW - Neurofilament Proteins

KW - Rabbits

KW - Sinoatrial Node

U2 - 10.1161/01.CIR.0000152100.04087.DB

DO - 10.1161/01.CIR.0000152100.04087.DB

M3 - Article

C2 - 15699261

VL - 111

SP - 846

EP - 854

JO - Circulation

JF - Circulation

SN - 0009-7322

IS - 7

ER -