In the last twenty years, we have witnessed a rapid transformation of the practices of science: the availability of tools of increasing power, the presence of private investments and financial support, the increasing and sometimes unforeseen transformations of natural systems following technological applications of scientific knowledge, have produced new situations that are of great relevance for society. The complexity of the interactions between humans and nature becomes manifest through the appearance of unexpected phenomena and processes: in order to cope with this situation precautionary attitudes have to be taken, and control procedures of scientific activity have to be implemented. This implies a process of democratization of science, and an increasing involvement of citizens in the production of new knowledge. Education has a role of primary importance and responsibility in promoting, in young people, an idea of science that is more commensurate with our times and the problems that humanity is facing. It is no longer suitable and viable to present science as a neutral and objective activity, and to leave scientists with the responsibility to make crucial choices. Teachers are charged with the task of presenting science as a human, fallible endeavour, loaded with interests and values. This new scenario of science calls more and more for the contribution of a multiplicity of perspectives as a precondition for democratic governance.