Context-dependent Semantic Processing in the Human Brain

Evidence from Idiom Comprehension

Joost Rommers (Corresponding Author), Ton Dijkstra, Marcel Bastiaansen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Language comprehension involves activating word meanings and integrating them with the sentence context. This study examined whether these routines are carried out even when they are theoretically unnecessary, namely, in the case of opaque idiomatic expressions, for which the literal word meanings are unrelated to the overall meaning of the expression. Predictable words in sentences were replaced by a semantically related or unrelated word. In literal sentences, this yielded previously established behavioral and electrophysiological signatures of semantic processing: semantic facilitation in lexical decision, a reduced N400 for semantically related relative to unrelated words, and a power increase in the gamma frequency band that was disrupted by semantic violations. However, the same manipulations in idioms yielded none of these effects. Instead, semantic violations elicited a late positivity in idioms. Moreover, gamma band power was lower in correct idioms than in correct literal sentences. It is argued that the brain's semantic expectancy and literal word meaning integration operations can, to some extent, be “switched off” when the context renders them unnecessary. Furthermore, the results lend support to models of idiom comprehension that involve unitary idiom representations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)762-776
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Volume25
Issue number5
Early online date28 Mar 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2013

Fingerprint

Semantics
Brain
Language
Power (Psychology)

Cite this

Context-dependent Semantic Processing in the Human Brain : Evidence from Idiom Comprehension. / Rommers, Joost (Corresponding Author); Dijkstra, Ton; Bastiaansen, Marcel.

In: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 25, No. 5, 05.2013, p. 762-776.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ded0c991ce9a4a4c9067dbae4d004c90,
title = "Context-dependent Semantic Processing in the Human Brain: Evidence from Idiom Comprehension",
abstract = "Language comprehension involves activating word meanings and integrating them with the sentence context. This study examined whether these routines are carried out even when they are theoretically unnecessary, namely, in the case of opaque idiomatic expressions, for which the literal word meanings are unrelated to the overall meaning of the expression. Predictable words in sentences were replaced by a semantically related or unrelated word. In literal sentences, this yielded previously established behavioral and electrophysiological signatures of semantic processing: semantic facilitation in lexical decision, a reduced N400 for semantically related relative to unrelated words, and a power increase in the gamma frequency band that was disrupted by semantic violations. However, the same manipulations in idioms yielded none of these effects. Instead, semantic violations elicited a late positivity in idioms. Moreover, gamma band power was lower in correct idioms than in correct literal sentences. It is argued that the brain's semantic expectancy and literal word meaning integration operations can, to some extent, be “switched off” when the context renders them unnecessary. Furthermore, the results lend support to models of idiom comprehension that involve unitary idiom representations.",
author = "Joost Rommers and Ton Dijkstra and Marcel Bastiaansen",
note = "Acknowledgments We thank Lonneke B{\"u}cken and Kevin Lam for running Experiment 1, the research assistants of the Neurobiology of Language Department for their assistance with running Experiment 2, Lilla Magyari for help with some of the figures, and Francesco Vespignani and three anonymous reviewers for comments on a previous version of this article.",
year = "2013",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1162/jocn_a_00337",
language = "English",
volume = "25",
pages = "762--776",
journal = "Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience",
issn = "0898-929X",
publisher = "MIT Press Journals",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Context-dependent Semantic Processing in the Human Brain

T2 - Evidence from Idiom Comprehension

AU - Rommers, Joost

AU - Dijkstra, Ton

AU - Bastiaansen, Marcel

N1 - Acknowledgments We thank Lonneke Bücken and Kevin Lam for running Experiment 1, the research assistants of the Neurobiology of Language Department for their assistance with running Experiment 2, Lilla Magyari for help with some of the figures, and Francesco Vespignani and three anonymous reviewers for comments on a previous version of this article.

PY - 2013/5

Y1 - 2013/5

N2 - Language comprehension involves activating word meanings and integrating them with the sentence context. This study examined whether these routines are carried out even when they are theoretically unnecessary, namely, in the case of opaque idiomatic expressions, for which the literal word meanings are unrelated to the overall meaning of the expression. Predictable words in sentences were replaced by a semantically related or unrelated word. In literal sentences, this yielded previously established behavioral and electrophysiological signatures of semantic processing: semantic facilitation in lexical decision, a reduced N400 for semantically related relative to unrelated words, and a power increase in the gamma frequency band that was disrupted by semantic violations. However, the same manipulations in idioms yielded none of these effects. Instead, semantic violations elicited a late positivity in idioms. Moreover, gamma band power was lower in correct idioms than in correct literal sentences. It is argued that the brain's semantic expectancy and literal word meaning integration operations can, to some extent, be “switched off” when the context renders them unnecessary. Furthermore, the results lend support to models of idiom comprehension that involve unitary idiom representations.

AB - Language comprehension involves activating word meanings and integrating them with the sentence context. This study examined whether these routines are carried out even when they are theoretically unnecessary, namely, in the case of opaque idiomatic expressions, for which the literal word meanings are unrelated to the overall meaning of the expression. Predictable words in sentences were replaced by a semantically related or unrelated word. In literal sentences, this yielded previously established behavioral and electrophysiological signatures of semantic processing: semantic facilitation in lexical decision, a reduced N400 for semantically related relative to unrelated words, and a power increase in the gamma frequency band that was disrupted by semantic violations. However, the same manipulations in idioms yielded none of these effects. Instead, semantic violations elicited a late positivity in idioms. Moreover, gamma band power was lower in correct idioms than in correct literal sentences. It is argued that the brain's semantic expectancy and literal word meaning integration operations can, to some extent, be “switched off” when the context renders them unnecessary. Furthermore, the results lend support to models of idiom comprehension that involve unitary idiom representations.

UR - https://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/116390

U2 - 10.1162/jocn_a_00337

DO - 10.1162/jocn_a_00337

M3 - Article

VL - 25

SP - 762

EP - 776

JO - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

JF - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

SN - 0898-929X

IS - 5

ER -